The Covenant with Adam—A Brief Historical Analysis
Rev. Angus Stewart
(slightly modified from an article first published in
Reformed churches teach
a covenant relationship between pre-fall Adam and the Triune God. In
this article, we shall analyse the views of various theologians,
especially John Calvin, culminating in the work of Herman Hoeksema who
identified the covenant, including the covenant with Adam, as fellowship
between the living God and His son whom He created in His own image.
1. Is there a
covenant with Adam?
The Christian church
has spoken of the relationship between God and Adam before the fall in
terms of the covenant from at least as far back as Augustine (354-430).1
Reformed theology has developed this truth. Scholars have debated,
however, if Calvin (1509-1564) held to a pre-fall covenant with Adam.
Luther (1483-1546) and
many Reformed theologians rightly see a reference to God’s covenant with
Adam in Hosea 6:7.2
From his commentary on Hosea 6:7, it is clear that Calvin was aware that
some in his day understood the verse this way: "Others explain the words
thus, ‘They have transgressed as Adam the covenant.’" However,
Calvin calls this interpretation "frigid," "diluted" and "vapid;" and so
does "not stop to refute" it.
Calvin scholars have
found only one passage in which Calvin speaks explicitly of God’s
covenant with pre-fall Adam. In his Institutes of the Christian
Religion, he writes of the "covenants" (plural) with Adam and with
Noah and their respective sacraments or signs:
One is when [God] gave Adam and Eve the tree of life as a guarantee of
immortality, that they might assure themselves of it as long as they
should eat of its fruit [Gen. 2:9; 3:22]. Another, when he set the
rainbow for Noah and his descendants, as a token that he would not
destroy the earth with a flood [Gen. 9:13-16]. These, Adam and Noah
regarded as sacraments. Not that the tree provided them with an
immortality which it could not give to itself; nor that the rainbow
(which is but a reflection of the sun’s rays opposite) could be
effective in holding back the waters; but because they had a mark
engraved upon them by God’s Word, so that they were proofs and seals of
his covenants (Institutes 4.14.18).3
Calvin does not call
this pre-fall covenant a "covenant of works" or a "covenant of creation"
or a "covenant of nature," terms used by Zacharias Ursinus (1534-1583).4
The phrase "covenant with Adam" would fit well with the above quotation
from the Genevan reformer.
2. Could unfallen
Adam have attained eternal, heavenly life?
Calvin believed that
"the first man would have passed to a better life had he remained
upright" (Comm. on Gen. 3:19). By a "better" life, he means, more
specifically, "eternal life" (Institutes 2.1.4) and
heavenly life, for "he would have passed into heaven without death"
(Comm. on Gen. 2:16-17).
Calvin opines, "In this
integrity man by free will had the power, if he so willed, to attain
eternal life." A few lines later he writes, "Adam could have stood if he
had wished, seeing that he fell solely by his own will" (Institutes
1.15.8). We have no quarrel with the statement that Adam would have
"stood" in the way of obedience. But neither Calvin nor anyone since has
proved that Scripture teaches that Adam would have received "eternal,
Commenting on "man
became a living soul," Calvin writes,
Paul makes an antithesis between this living soul and the quickening
spirit which Christ confers upon the faithful (I Cor. 15:45) for no
other purpose than to teach us that the state of man was not perfected
in the person of Adam; but it is a peculiar benefit conferred by Christ,
that we may be renewed to a life which is celestial, whereas
before the fall of Adam, man’s life was only earthly, seeing it
had no firm and settled constancy (Comm. on Gen. 2:7).
To say the least, I
Corinthians 15:45 (and Calvin’s remarks on it above) do not sit easy
with the notion that pre-fall Adam could have attained to eternal,
heavenly life in the way of obedience, both for himself and, by
implication, his descendants.
I Corinthians 15:45-49 draws a
contrast between the first Adam and the "last" or "second" Adam, Jesus
Christ. First, Christ is "the Lord from heaven," while Adam is merely
"of the earth, earthy" (I Cor. 15:47), a "clayey figure," as Calvin puts
it (Comm. on Gen. 2:7). Second, Adam is "natural;" Christ is "spiritual"
(I Cor. 15:46). Third, whereas "Adam was made a living soul; the last
Adam was made a quickening spirit" (I Cor. 15:45). The latter happened
through the incarnation, death, resurrection and session of Christ. Thus
if it took the incarnation, cross and ascension of the "spiritual" "Lord
from heaven"—"a quickening spirit!"—to convey eternal, heavenly life to
the elect, how could the "earthy," "natural" Adam, who was merely "a
living soul," ever gain eternal, heavenly life and communicate it to his
Though many Presbyterian and Reformed men reckon
that Adam could have gained eternal, heavenly life,
the Westminster Standards do not actually specify this: "The
first covenant made with man was a covenant of works, wherein
life was promised to Adam, and in him to his posterity, upon
condition of perfect and personal obedience" (Westminster
Confession 7:2). Nor do the Westminster Standards
mention a period of probation, Adam's receiving heavenly life
for all his descendants (had he remained faithful) or the
possibility of Adam's meriting with God (never mind
meriting eternal and heavenly life for all his descendants!).
The phrase "covenant of works"—also called the "covenant of
life" (Westminster Larger Catechism, Q. & A. 20)—does not
at all require the idea of merit. Works out of gratitude to his
gracious creator were the way in which Adam continued in covenant
fellowship with God. The Westminster Standards simply state
that Adam and "his posterity" would receive "life" in the way of
"perfect and personal obedience" (Westminster Confession
7:2). However, Adam, our representative head, sinned and died—and so
we died too (Gen. 2:17; Rom. 5:12; 6:23).
Thomas Goodwin (1600-1680), an
English Puritan and prominent Westminster Assembly delegate, makes a
sustained attack on the idea of Adam gaining eternal, heavenly life by
his perseverance in part 2 of his Of the Creatures, and the Condition
of their State by Creation. He appeals to I Corinthians 15:45 and
its context many times.5
In his work, Of Christ the Mediator, Goodwin writes,
Adam could not earn a condition of a higher rank, nor by all his works
have brought any greater preferment than what he was created in. To
compass it was ultra suam sphaerum, above his sphere; he could
never have done it. As, for instance, he could not have attained that
state in heaven which the angels enjoy. What says Christ? "When you have
done all you can, say, You are unprofitable servants" (Luke 17:10). This
he could no more do than other creatures by keeping those their
ordinances can merit to be "translated into the glorious liberty" which
they wait for, and shall have at the latter day. The moon, though she
keep all her motions set her by God never so regularly, yet she cannot
thereby attain to the light of the sun as a new reward thereof. And thus
no more can any pure creature of itself, by all its righteousness,
obtain in justice a higher condition to itself. And therefore the
angels, by all their own grace, have not to this day earned a better
condition than they were created in.6
Nor is the idea that
unfallen Adam could have gained eternal life distinctively Reformed,
for, as Goodwin points out, the Roman Catholics also hold this.7
Though Calvin (wrongly)
held that Adam could have attained to heaven, he (rightly) rejects all
notion of Adam meriting with God. Peter Lillback writes, "Calvin’s
theology permits no merit in the prelapsarian context."8
Calvin’s rejection of merit in the pre-fall context is partly motivated
by a desire to refute the Roman Catholic theologians’ connection of
merit and the justification of the sinner. But his antipathy to merit is
deeper than this. For Calvin, no creature of God [including pre-fall
Adam and the elect angels], even though perfect, could merit anything
from God the Creator.9
Lillback cites Calvin’s
commentary on Romans 11:35:
Paul not only concludes that God owes us nothing, on account of our
corrupt and sinful nature; but he denies, that if man were perfect, he
could bring anything before God, by which he could gain his favour; for
as soon as he begins to exist, he is already by the right of creation so
much indebted to his Maker, that he has nothing of his own.
Luther’s deadly hatred
of creaturely merit in all its forms is well-known. Other Reformed
theologians, such as Thomas Goodwin and the Swiss Daniel Wyttenbach
(1706-1779), also rejected the idea of Adam meriting with God, even if
it was ex pacto (out of the covenant).10
3. Was the covenant
with Adam a contract or a bond?
(1630-1706) speaks for many Reformed and Presbyterian theologians: "all
the essentials of the covenant of works are contained in the first
publication of it [in Genesis 2:17]."11
This covenant of works includes a "condition" (not eating of the tree of
the knowledge of good and evil), a "penalty" for eating (death) and a
"promise" (eternal and heavenly life). In his commentary on Genesis
2:16-17 and in his Institutes (2.1.4), Calvin uses words such as
"test," "threat" and "promise," though he does not present the
schematised theology of many later theologians.
However, not only is
there no promise of eternal life in Genesis 2:17, this system also
presents the pre-fall covenant as merely a means to an end. But the
Bible teaches that the covenant is eternal and the end of God’s dealings
with His people (Rev. 21:3), not merely a means. Moreover, if "all the
essentials of the covenant of works" are contained in Genesis 2:17, then
there was a time, after Adam’s creation and before God issued the prohibitory command, in which he was not in covenant with God! A
"covenantless" existence for pre-fall Adam, even for a short time, is
The covenant with Adam
was a bond of fellowship between the Almighty, Triune God and Adam His
covenant friend-servant whom He created in His own image. Thus, as
Calvin notes, "In the very order of the creation the eternal solicitude
of God for man is conspicuous, because he furnished the world with all
things needful" for man (Comm. on Gen. 1:26). God gave Adam a "home" in
"Paradise," which Calvin further describes as "a place which he had
especially embellished with every variety of delights, with abounding
fruits, and with all other most excellent gifts … from the enjoyment of
which he might infer the paternal benevolence of God" (Comm. on Gen.
2:8). Thus Adam was "in every respect, happy" for He lived as a
recipient of the divine "liberality" (Comm. on Gen. 2:16). In His
goodness, God gave Adam a wife with whom he lived in "sweetest harmony"
and with whom he enjoyed "a holy, as well as friendly and peaceful,
intercourse" as "the inseparable associate of his life" (Comm. on Gen.
developed the truth of covenant fellowship between the Creator God and
His creation, man. He worked with the biblical data of the covenant as
walking with God, dwelling with God and friendship with God and built on
ideas found in the Reformed tradition, especially in its treatment of
the blissful communion Adam enjoyed with God in the Garden of Eden.
From the very first moment of his existence … and by virtue of his being
created after the image of God, Adam stood in [a] covenant relation to
God and was conscious of that living fellowship and friendship … He knew
God and loved Him and was conscious of God’s love to him. He enjoyed the
favour of God. He received the Word of God, walked with God and talked
with Him; and he dwelled in the house of God in paradise the first.12
of the covenant (both before and after the fall) as a gracious bond of
friendship explains the biblical data, excludes all human merit and
preserves the absolute sovereignty of God.
1 Peter A. Lillback cites Augustine’s City of God 16.27 and On
Marriage and Concupiscence 2.11.24 (The Binding of God:
Calvin’s Role in the Development of Covenant Theology [Grand
Rapids, MI: Baker, 2001], pp. 41-45).
Cf. B. B. Warfield, "Hosea VI.7: Adam or Man?" in Selected Shorter
Writings, vol. 1 (USA: P & R, 1970), pp. 116-129. Similarly,
Herman Bavinck notes that "the translation of the words ke'adam
[in Hosea 6:7] by 'like Adam' led many to a similar view [to that of
Augustine who believed that God established a covenant relation with
pre-Fall Adam]" and cites in this connection J. Marck (Reformed
Dogmatics, John Bolt [ed.], John Vriend [trans.] [Grand Rapids:
Baker, 2004], vol. 2, p. 567 and n. 13).
3 "The term ‘sacrament’" in this context, Calvin explains,
"embraces generally all those signs which God has ever enjoined upon men
to render them more certain and confident of the truth of his promises."
In this broad category, Calvin includes Gideon’s fleece and Hezekiah’s
sundial going back ten degrees. Thus Calvin is not referring to the tree
of life as if it were the equivalent of baptism or the Lord’s Supper.
Westminster Larger Catechism, Q. & A. 20, also speaks of a
"covenant of life" with Adam.
Thomas Goodwin, The Works of Thomas Goodwin (USA: Tanski
Publications, 1996), vol. 7, pp. 36, 37, 48, 49-50, 62, 70, 73, 76-91,
Works, vol. 5, pp. 82-83.
Works, vol. 7, p. 57.
8 Lillback, Binding of God, p. 299.
9 Lillback, Binding of God, p. 298.
Quoted in Heinrich Heppe, Reformed Dogmatics (Grand Rapids, MI:
Baker, 1978), p. 296; Goodwin, Works, vol. 7, pp. 23, 29, 49.
Quoted in Heppe, Reformed Dogmatics, p. 290.