Arminianism: The Road the Rome!
Augustus Toplady (1740-1778)
Whose Voice Do You Hear?
"My sheep, saith Christ, hear my voice, and I know
them, and they follow me; and I give unto them eternal life, and they
shall never perish. O, most worthy Scriptures! which ought to compel us
to have a faithful remembrance, and to note the tenor thereof; which is,
the sheep of Christ shall never perish. Doth Christ mean part of his
elect, or all, think you? I do hold, and affirm, and also faithfully
believe, that he meant all his elect, and not part, as some do full
ungodly affirm. I confess and believe assuredly, that there shall never
any of them perish: for I have good authority so to say; be- cause
Christ is my author, and saith, if it were possible, the very elect
should be deceived. Ergo, it is not possible that they can be so
deceived, that they shall ever finally perish, or be damned: wherefore,
whosoever doth affirm that there may be any (i.e. any of the elect)
lost, doth affirm that Christ hath a torn body."1
The above valuable letter of recantation is thus
inscribed: "A Letter to the Congregation of Free-willers, by One that
had been of that Persuasion, but come off, and now a Prisoner for
Religion:" which superscription will hereafter, in its due place, supply
us with a remark of more than slight importance.
John Wesley, a Friend of Rome?
To occupy the place of argument, it has been alleged
that "Mr. Wesley is an old man;" and the Church of Rome is still older
than he. Is that any reason why the enormities, either of the mother or
the son, should pass unchastised?
It has also been suggested, that "Mr. Wesley is a
very laborious man:" not more laborious, I presume, than a certain
active being, who is said to go to and fro in the earth, and walk up and
down in it [Job 1:7 with I Peter 5:8]: nor yet more laborious, I should imagine, than
certain ancient Sectarians, concerning whom it was long ago said, "Woe
unto you Scribes, hypocrites; for ye compass sea and land to make one
proselyte" [Matthew 23:15]: nor, by any means, so usefully laborious, as a
certain diligent member of the community, respecting whose variety of
occupations the public have lately received the following intelligence:
"The truth of the following instance of industry may be depended on: a
poor man with a large family, now cries milk, every morning, in Lothbury, and the neighbourhood of the Royal Exchange; at eleven, he
wheels about a barrow of potatoes; at one, he cleans shoes at the
Change; after dinner, cries milk again; in the evening, sells sprats;
and at night, finishes the measure of his labour as a watchman."2
The Quarrel Is With the Wolf
Mr. Sellon, moreover, reminds me (p. 128) that,
"while the shepherds are quarrelling, the wolf gets into the sheep
fold;" not impossible: but it so happens, that the present quarrel is
not among "the shepherds," but with the "wolf" himself; which "quarrel"
is warranted by every maxim of pastoral meekness and fidelity.
I am further told, that, while I am "berating the
Arminians, Rome and the devil laugh in their sleeves." Admitting that
Mr. Sellon might derive this anecdote from the fountain head, the
parties themselves, yet, as neither they nor he are very conspicuous for
veracity, I construe the intelligence by the rule of reverse, though
authenticated by the deposition of their right trusty and well-beloved
cousin and counsellor.
Once more: I am charged with "excessive
superciliousness, and majesty of pride:" and why not charged with having
seven heads and ten horns, and a tail as long as a bell-rope? After all,
what has my pride, or my humility, to do with the argument in hand?
Whether I am haughty, or meek, is of no more consequence either to that,
or to the public, than whether I am tall or short: however, I am, at
this very time, giving one proof, that my "majesty of pride" can stoop;
that even to ventilate the impertinences of Mr. Sellon.
Arminianism at Home in Rome
But, however frivolous his cavils, the principles for
which he contends are of the most pernicious nature and tendency. I must
repeat, what already seems to have given him so much offence, that
Arminianism "came from Rome, and leads thither again." Julian, bishop of
Eclana a contemporary and disciple of Pelagius, was one of those who
endeavoured, with much art, to gild the doctrines of that heresiarch, in
order to render them more sightly and palatable. The Pelagian system,
thus varnished and paliated, soon began to acquire the softer name of
Semipelagianism. Let us take a view of it, as drawn to our hands by the
celebrated Mr. Bower, who himself, in the main, a professed Pelagian,
and therefore less likely to present us with an unfavourable portrait of
the system he generally approved. Among the principles of that sect,
this learned writer enumerates the following:
of election and reprobation, independent on our merits or demerits, is
maintaining a fatal necessity, is the bane of all virtue, and serves
only to render good men remiss in working out their salvation, and to
drive sinners to despair.
decrees of election and reprobation are posterior to, and in consequence
of, our good or evil works, as foreseen by God from all eternity."3
Is not this too the very language of modern
Arminianism? Do not the partizans of that scheme argue on the same
identical terms? Should it be said, "True, this proves that Arminianism
is Pelagianism revived; but it does not prove, that the doctrines of
Arminianism are originally Popish:" a moment's cool attention will make
it plain that they are. Let us again hear Mr. Bower, who, after the
passage just quoted, immediately adds, "on these two last propositions,
the Jesuits found their whole system of grace and free-will; agreeing
therein with the Semipelagians, against the Jansenists and St.
Augustine."4 The Jesuits were moulded into a regular body,
towards the middle of the sixteenth century: toward the close of the
same century, Arminius began to infest the Protestant churches. It needs
therefore no great penetration, to discern from what source he drew his
poison. His journey to Rome (though Monsieur Bayle affects to make light
of the inferences which were at that very time deduced from it) was not
for nothing. If, however, any are disposed to believe, that Arminius
imbibed his doctrines from the Socinians in Poland, with whom, it is
certain, he was on terms of intimate friendship, I have no objection to
splitting the difference: he might import some of his tenets from the
Racovian brethren, and yet be indebted, for others, to the disciples of
Papists and Predestination
Certain it is, that Arminius himself was sensible,
how greatly the doctrine of predestination widens the distance between
Protestantism and Popery. "There is no point of doctrines [says he]
which the Papists, the Anabaptists, and the (new) Lutherans more
fiercely oppose, nor by means of which they heap more discredit on the
reformed churches, and bring the reformed system itself into more odium;
for they [i.e. the Papists, etc.] assert, that no fouler blasphemy
against God can be thought or expressed, than is contained in the
doctrine of predestination."5 For which reason, he advises
the reformed world to discard predestination from their creed, in order
that they may live on more brotherly terms with the Papists, the
Anabaptists, and such like.
The Arminian writers make no scruple to seize and
retail each other's arguments, as common property. Hence, Samuel Hoord
copies from Van Harmin the self same observation which I have now cited.
"Predestination [says Samuel] is an opinion odious to the Papists,
opening their foul mouths, against our Church and religion:"6
consequently, our adopting the opposite doctrines of universal grace and
freewill, would, by bringing us so many degrees nearer to the Papists,
conduce to shut their mouths, and make them regard us, so far at least,
as their own orthodox and dearly beloved brethren: whence it follows,
that, as Arminianism came from Rome, so "it leads thither again."
The Jesuits and Predestination
If the joint verdict of Arminius himself, and of his
English proselyte Hoord, will not turn the scale, let us add the
testimony of a professed Jesuit, by way of making up full weight. When
archbishop Laud's papers were examined, a letter was found among them,
thus endorsed with that prelate's own hand: "March, 1628. A Jesuit's
Letter, sent to the Rector at Bruxels, about the ensuing Parliament."
The design of this letter was to give the Superior of the Jesuits, then
resident at Brussels, an account of the posture of civil and
ecclesiastical affairs in England; an extract from it I shall here
subjoin: "Father Rector, let not the damp of astonishment seize upon
your ardent and zealous soul, in apprehending the sodaine [sudden] and unexpected
calling of a Parliament. We have now many strings to our bow. We have
planted that soveraigne drugge Arminianisme, which we hope will purge
the Protestants from their heresie; and it flourisheth and beares fruit
in due season. For the better prevention of the Puritanes, the Arminians
have already locked up the Duke's [of Buckingham] eares; and we have
those of our owne religion, which stand continually at the Duke's
chamber, to see who goes in and out: we cannot be too circumspect and
carefull in this regard. I am, at this time, transported with joy, to
see how happily all instruments and means, as well great as lesser,
co-operate unto our purposes. But, to return unto the maine
fabricke:—OUR FOUNDATION IS ARMINIANISME. The Arminians and projectors,
as it appeares in the premises, affect mutation. This we second and
enforce by probable arguments."7
The Sovereign Drug Arminianism
The "Sovereign drug, Arminianism," which said the
Jesuit, "we [i.e. Papists] have planted" in England, did indeed bid
fair "to purge our Protestant Church effectually. How merrily Popery and Arminianism, at that time, danced hand in hand, may be learned from
Tindal: "The churches were adorned with paintings, images, altar-pieces,
& etc. and, instead of communion tables, altars were set up, and bowings
to them and the sacramental elements enjoined. The predestinarian
doctrines were forbid, not only to be preached, but to be printed; and
the Arminian sense of the (Thirty-Nine) Articles was encouraged and
propagated."8 The Jesuit, therefore, did not exult without
cause. The "sovereign drug," so lately "planted," did indeed take deep
root downward, and bring forth fruit upward, under the cherishing
auspices of Charles I and [Archbishop] Laud. Heylyn, too, acknowledges, that the
state of things was truly described by another Jesuit of that age, who
wrote: "Protestantism waxeth weary of itself. The doctrine [by the Arminians, who then sat at the helm] is altered in many things, for
which their progenitors forsook the Church of Rome: as limbus patrum;
prayer for the dead, and possibility of keeping God's commandments; and
the accounting of Calvinism to be heresy at least, if not treason."9
Arminianism From the Pit
The maintaining of these positions, by the Court
divines, was an "alteration" indeed; which the abandoned Heylyn ascribes
to "the ingenuity and moderation found in some professors of our
religion." If we sum up the evidence that has been given, we shall find
its amount to be, that Arminianism came from the Church of Rome, and
leads back again to the pit whence it was digged.
(Augustus Toplady, "Historic Proof of the Doctrinal
Calvinism of the Church of England," Works, 1837, pp. 54-55)
1 Strype, Ecclesiastical Memorials.
2 Bath Chronicle, for Feb. 6, 1772.
3 Bower, History of the Popes, vol. 1, p. 350.
5 Arminius, Opera Theologica (Leiden, 1629), p.
6 Hoord, Bishop Davenant’s Animadversions (Cambridge,
7 Hidden Works of Darkness (1645), pp. 89-90.
8 Tindal, The Continuation of Mr. Rapin’s History of
England (1758), vol. 3.
9 Heylyn, Life of Laud, p. 238.