For Whom Did Christ Die?
Rev. Angus Stewart
For whom did Jesus Christ, the incarnate
Son of God, die on the cross? This foundational question must especially
be asked and answered in our day because many believe that the Lord shed
His blood for everyone head for head, excluding no one. This view,
universal atonement, is preached in many pulpits and widely promoted as
if it were gospel truth. But this position must be analysed very
carefully. Is it really true that Christ gave His life to save everybody
This short pamphlet presents 19 simple
arguments against this popular error. First, it shows that the view that
the Son of God died for all men absolutely is foolish and contradictory.
Arguments 1-8 are stated in the form "Did Christ Really Die for ...?"
Argument 9 lists antithetically biblical names given to those for whom
the Saviour shed His blood. Second, universal atonement is ruled out by
considerations from the Holy Trinity, the Old Testament sacrifices and
the truth that Christ’s death actually atones and saves (arguments
10-13). Third, five well-known and pertinent biblical chapters are
expounded proving particular redemption, that Jesus laid down His life
for the elect alone (arguments 14-18), which is the teaching of the
Reformed creeds on the basis of the Word of God (argument 19). Readers
are urged to look up and study the Scripture texts cited throughout this
pamphlet; this is especially important for arguments 14-18.
1. Did Christ Really Die for Those Who
Were Already in Hell?
How could the Triune God, who is possessed
of infinite wisdom and understanding, send His dearly beloved Son to
ransom from sin and hell those who were already in hell, a place of
torment from which the damned have no way out (Luke 16:26; Mark 9:43-48;
2. Did Christ Really Die for Those Who Had
Already Committed the Unpardonable Sin?
In His public ministry, Jesus spoke of the
unpardonable sin: "Whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall
not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world to
come" (Matt. 12:32). Nor was Christ speaking here merely in the
abstract; some of His hearers that day had committed that sin (22-37).
The Lord knew, therefore, that some people, including the Pharisees
before Him (24), could not be forgiven. What sense then is there in the
Saviour dying for the redemption and forgiveness (Eph. 1:7) of those
whom He already knew could not be forgiven?
3. Did Christ Really Die for Those Who
Never Hear the Gospel?
God sent His Word to only one people, the
Israelites, during the Old Testament age, and "He hath not dealt so with
any [other] nation" (Ps. 147:19-20; Acts 14:16). Moreover, Jehovah does
not send the gospel in the New Testament age to everybody either (Matt.
24:14; Acts 16:6-8). Why then would God send His Son to die for those
who never hear the gospel and hence could never be saved (Rom. 10:14,
4. Did Christ Really Die for Judas, the
Son of Perdition?
The Bible teaches that Judas was "the son
of perdition" (John 17:12), that is, a man wholly characterized by
perishing, ruin and eternal destruction. Did the Lord really die for
Judas when He knew that the Old Testament had already prophesied that
Judas would betray Him (Ps. 41:9; 109:6-19) and "go to his own place,"
namely hell (Acts 1:25; John 17:12)?
5. Did Christ Really Die for Esau Whom God
Scripture states that God hated Esau (Rom.
9:13) but repeatedly the Saviour’s atonement is spoken of as the fruit
of God’s love (John 3:16; Rom. 5:8; I John 4:10). How then could God
send His Son in His infinite, eternal and boundless love (Eph. 3:18-19)
to die for Esau whom He hated?
6. Did Christ Really Die for the False,
Since the Lord’s sacrifice is motivated by
His love for those for whom He died (John 15:13; Gal. 2:20; Eph. 5:25),
if He laid down His life for absolutely everybody, then he also loved
and died for the false church, the whore, and the multitudes who
fornicate with her in her corrupt worship (Rev. 17:1-2, 15)! But
Ephesians 5:25 teaches that the Son of God "loved the church, and gave
himself for it." No mention is made here of a love of Christ or a death
of Christ for that which is not the true, elect church which is
sanctified by God’s cleansing Word (26) and presented spotless at the
last day (27).
If the Lord Jesus loved and died for
everyone head for head (which necessarily includes the false church),
then He must have "loved the church [and the false church], and gave
himself for [both of them]." Then husbands would be commanded, "love
your wives, even as Christ also loved the church [and the false
church]" (25). Thus husbands would have to love their wives even as
Christ loves His bride and a harlot, the false church.
But Scripture teaches that our Saviour has
one bride, the church of all ages (Rev. 21:2). He loved her and gave
Himself for her alone. This—and not the theory that the Redeemer
loved and died for everybody—is the truth of the cross and the biblical
model for Christian husbands who are not to love and give themselves for
7. Did Christ Really Die for Antichrist
and His Followers?
If the Lord Jesus died for all men, then it
follows that he was crucified to save Antichrist, the "man of sin" (II
Thess. 2:3), who "opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is God,
or that is worshipped" (4). This man is the culmination of the working
of the "mystery of iniquity" (7), the one who works with "all
deceivableness of unrighteousness" (10), whose "coming is after the
working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders" (9). Is it
possible that the Father gave Christ to die for Antichrist? Did the One
who is God and man really go to the cross for Satan’s man, the "man of
sin" and "son of perdition" (3), the one wholly characterized by
iniquity and eternal destruction? Did the eternal, omniscient God really
send His Son to reconcile the lawless one whom He has ordained to be
destroyed by the "spirit of [Christ’s] mouth" and "the brightness of his
II Thessalonians 2 also speaks of
Antichrist’s followers. They reject the truth and the son of perdition
deceives them; therefore, both parties are guilty (10). But we also read
that "God shall send them strong delusion that they should believe a
lie: that they all might be damned" (11-12). If God loved them and gave
His Son to die for them and wants to reconcile them to Himself, then why
does He send them strong delusion in order that they should
believe the lie in order that they all might be damned (11-12)?
Similarly, a death of Christ for absolutely
everybody presents the Lamb of God as offering Himself as a sacrifice
for the beast and the false prophet whom we are told shall be "cast
alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone" (Rev. 19:20).
Moreover, "whosoever was not found written in the book of life [will be]
cast into the lake of fire" (Rev. 20:15). If the Son of God died for
them, His ransom did nothing to free them from eternal punishment.
8. Did Christ Really Die for Other
Reprobate Individuals and Groups?
If the Lord died for all absolutely, He
must have died for Cain as well as Abel, Nimrod as well as Noah, Jezebel
as well as Elijah. This holds for nations too. Christ must have redeemed
not only Israel but also the Amalekites, against whom God swore to fight
for generations (Ex. 17:14-16); the Amorites, including Sihon whose
heart Jehovah made obdurate that He might destroy him (Deut. 2:30); the
Canaanites, whom God hardened that they might go to battle with Israel
and be slaughtered (Josh. 11:20); and the Philistines, including
Goliath; as well as the homosexual Sodomites, upon whom the Most High
rained down fire and brimstone (Gen. 19:24); and the Edomites, whom He
hated and devastated (Mal. 1:2-5).
The incarnate Son must even have offered
Himself a sacrifice for Pharaoh, whom God raised up in order to show His
power in drowning him (Ex. 9:16; Rom. 9:17), and the Egyptians whom He
crushed at the Red Sea (Ex. 14:26-28), even though no provision was made
for the application of lambs’ blood upon their lintels (Ex. 12).
9. Christ Died for His People, Friends,
The truth is that Jesus Christ died for His
"people" (Matt. 1:21; Heb. 2:17) and His "friends" (John 15:13-14). The
"people" whom He redeemed are further described as "his seed" (Isa.
53:10) and not the seed of the serpent (Gen. 3:15); His "sons,"
"children" and "brethren" (Heb. 2:10-14) and not "bastards," i.e., the
illegitimate (Heb. 12:8); His "sheep" (John 10:11, 15) and not "the
goats" (Matt. 25:33); His "church" (Acts 20:28; Eph. 5:25) and not the
"synagogue of Satan" (Rev. 2:9; 3:9); and the "many" (Isa. 53:11-12;
Matt. 20:28; 26:28; Mark 14:24; Heb. 9:28) and not everybody head for
10. The Truth of the Trinity Rules Out
The orthodox teaching of the Holy Trinity
militates against the notion that Christ died for everyone head for
head. The Father chose to save the elect alone and not the reprobate
(Rom. 9:6-24; Eph. 1:3-6), the Spirit applies redemption to the elect
alone and not the reprobate (Rom. 8:1-27; Eph. 1:13-14), but the Son
(allegedly) died for the elect and the reprobate. Thus there is a
radical disjuncture between the extent of the saving work of the Father
and the Spirit (elect but not reprobate) and the extent of the
saving work of the Son (elect and reprobate). Where then is the
unity between the three Persons of the Godhead? They are not all of one
mind and they do not all have one purpose. In fact, one Person of the
Trinity (the Son) is working for a goal (the salvation of the reprobate)
not shared by the other two Persons (the Father and the Spirit). The
Father elects His people to be redeemed, the Spirit applies this
redemption to the same elect people, but the Son (allegedly) dies to
redeem some whom the Father chose not to redeem and some to whom the
Spirit wills not to apply redemption.
Thus the teaching of universal atonement is
forbidden by the orthodox doctrine of the Holy Trinity and runs counter
to scriptural statements regarding the unity of the extent of the saving
work of the Father and the Son (John 10:15-17; Rom. 3:25-26; II Cor.
5:18-19; Eph. 1:4-7); the Son and the Spirit (Gal. 4:4-6; Heb. 9:14);
and the Father, the Son and the Spirit (Isa. 59:20-21; Eph. 1:3-14; II
Thess. 2:13-14; Titus 3:4-6; I Peter 1:2; Rev. 1:4-6).
11. The Old Testament Sacrifices Were Not
Scripture, especially the book of Hebrews,
makes it very clear that the Old Testament sacrifices were types and
shadows of our great high priest’s death on the cross. If the Lamb of
God offered Himself for the sins of everybody, then one would expect
this to be reflected in the sacrificial system. Leviticus 1-7, the
central passage on the Mosaic sacrifices, speaks of the burnt offering,
the meal offering, the peace offering, the sin offering and the trespass
offering. Always these sacrifices are particular, for Israel, the church
(Lev. 1:2; 4:13; 7:36, 38), and nowhere do we read of universal
atonement, an offering for every individual Jew and Gentile.
Similarly, on the Day of Atonement, the
high priest made atonement for the Israelites, not the Moabites nor the
Jebusites (Lev. 16:16, 17, 19, 21, 34). Moreover, the high priest bore
"the names of [the twelve tribes of] the children of Israel"—not the
names of the children of Esau—on the breastplate "upon his heart, when
he [went] in unto the holy place," speaking of his representative and
intercessory work for them (Ex. 28:29).
Lest it be said that the Old Testament
sacrifices speak of an atonement for every member of the nation of
Israel, we recall that fact that "they are not all Israel, which are of
Israel" (Rom. 9:6) and that the true Jew is not one circumcised in the
flesh but one circumcised in the spirit (Rom. 2:28-29). Our Lord shed
His blood for the true Israel and the Old Testament types point to His
redemption of the spiritual "Israel of God," consisting of elect Jews
and Gentiles (Gal. 6:16).
12. Christ’s Death Actually Atones
Universal atonement is contradicted by the
biblical presentation of Christ’s sacrifice as a work which actually
atones and blots out sin. The Son of God delivered us from the
kingdom of the devil (Heb. 2:14-15). He propitiated God’s wrath against
us by bearing God’s righteous indignation against our sins (I John
4:10). He reconciled us (Rom. 5:10), redeemed us (Gal. 3:13) and
ransomed us (Matt. 20:28).
Scripture does not teach that Christ merely
made atonement possible by His death. Nowhere does it say that.
The Bible teaches that Jesus actually delivered, reconciled,
redeemed and ransomed us by His cross. He did not merely make it
possible for all men to be delivered, reconciled, redeemed and ransomed.
On the cross, the Messiah turned away God’s punitive wrath against us
for ever. It is not true that Jehovah’s wrath is only potentially
turned away from all men so that all can be saved if they, by an act of
their "free will," choose Jesus. This view would make entrance into
God’s kingdom depend on man’s decision and not on God’s election!
If the Son of God paid the price for all
men yet some men perish in hell, then His cross does not save all for
whom it was made. Then too it is not substitutionary, for if He bore the
punishment of the reprobate—in their stead!—why do they perish? If some
end up in hell for whom Christ died, then God punished their sins twice,
once on the Lord Jesus and once on them. How can the infinitely just God
require payment for sins twice? How can He demand punishment of the
sinner in hell when satisfaction has already been made for his sins by
Jesus? And how can some whom the Saviour delivered, reconciled, redeemed
and ransomed dwell forever as God’s enemies in everlasting darkness in
the bottomless pit of hell? Remember, there is no condemnation for those
for whom Christ died (Rom. 8:34)!
So far is the Son of God from shedding His
blood for everybody that His death is actually "the judgment of this
world," for it is the casting out of Satan, "the prince of this world"
(John 12:31), bringing destruction upon the devil and his "seed" (Gen.
13. Christ’s Death Actually Saves
If the Lord Jesus died for absolutely
everybody, then why are not all actually saved? Romans 6
makes it clear that those who are united to Christ in His death are dead
to sin (6-7) and "alive unto God" (11), and will be raised bodily to
glory (5). But many spend all their days "dead in trespasses and sins"
(Eph. 2:1) and will rise in the "resurrection of damnation" (John 5:29).
We can only conclude that they were not united to Christ in His death
(i.e., He did not die for them), for if the reprobate were united to the
Son of God in His death (i.e., if He died for them), they would die to
sin and live unto God (Rom. 14:9; II Cor. 5:14-15).
Scripture teaches that both faith (Eph.
2:8-9; Phil. 1:29) and repentance (Acts 5:31; 11:18; II Tim. 2:25) are
gifts of God’s grace. Faith and repentance are instances of "spiritual
blessings in heavenly places in Christ" (Eph. 1:3). God’s blessings in
Christ come through the cross (Rom. 8:32; Gal. 3:13-14). But "all men
have not faith" (II Thess. 3:2) nor do all repent (Rev. 16:11). Thus
faith and repentance were not purchased for everybody head for head on
the cross and so the Saviour did not die for all.
Titus 2:14 explains that the Son’s purpose
in His redemption on the cross is the sanctification of His own
"peculiar people" that we would be purified and be "zealous of good
works." But many die impenitently and are "filthy" (Rev. 22:11) because
of their "ungodly deeds" (Jude 15). Since the purpose of the omnipotent
God always stands (Rom. 9:11) and can never be resisted (II Chron.
20:6), it was not the Lord’s purpose to sanctify and redeem the
reprobate by the cross. Thus Christ did not die for them.
14. John 10 Teaches Particular Redemption
In John 10, Jesus teaches that He, the good
shepherd, died for His sheep: "I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd
giveth his life for the sheep" (11); "I lay down my life for the sheep"
(15). Just as every earthly shepherd has his "own sheep" (3, 4), Christ
refers to His "fold" or flock (16) as "my sheep" (14, 26, 27). Later,
the Lord told some people that they were not His sheep and that this was
the reason why they did not believe: "But ye believe not, because
ye are not of my sheep" (26).
The argument is simple: Jesus died for His
sheep (11, 15), knowing exactly who they are (14, 26, 27); He told
certain people that they were not His sheep (26); therefore, He did not
die for them. The Lord also said that His sheep were given to Him by His
Father (29). The Father gave the sheep to the Son in His eternal purpose
of election so that in time He would die for them and gather them out of
all nations (16). Since Christ died for His sheep (and some are not His
sheep), and His sheep are the elect, Christ died for the elect alone.
15. John 17 Teaches Particular Redemption
In His high priestly prayer in John 17,
Jesus states, "I pray for them: I pray not for the world, but for
them which thou hast given me; for they are thine" (9). The "world" here
is the world of the reprobate or non-elect for whom the incarnate Son of
God does not pray, as opposed to the elect ("them which thou hast given
If the Lord did not do the lesser thing
(pray for the reprobate world), did He really do the greater thing (die
for the reprobate world)? Intercession is one of the two main aspects of
Christ’s priestly work. If Jesus did not pray for the world (one aspect
of His priestly work), is it possible that He died for the world (the
other aspect of His priestly work)? This would destroy the unity of
Christ’s priestly office, for He would be dying for those for whom He
did not (and does not) intercede. Furthermore, the Saviour prays on
the basis of His finished work of redemption (Isa. 53:12; Rom. 8:34;
Heb. 7:25-27; 9:24-26). Therefore, if He did not pray for the world, it
is because He did not die for the world.
In John 17, Jesus is praying just hours
before the cross and with a view to His sacrificial death, for He says,
"Father, the hour is come" (1). Throughout John 17, Christ’s
prayers and, therefore, His redeeming work are particular, only for the
elect, those whom the Father gave Him (2, 6, 9, 11, 12, 24). Our Lord’s
prayers that the Father keep (11-16), sanctify (17-19), unite (20-23)
and glorify (24-26) "as many as thou hast given him" (2) are powerfully
answered, for we are granted "eternal life" (2-3).
Jesus says, "And for their sakes
I sanctify myself, that they also might be sanctified" (19). Christ’s
sanctifying Himself is His consecrating and dedicating Himself to do the
will of Him who sent Him. Our Lord especially set Himself apart as our
willing sacrifice on the cross. This, He tells us, was "for their
sakes," for those whom the Father gave Him, the elect. Thus Christ’s
prayers and sacrifice are not only particular—"for them which thou hast
given me" (9)—but also exclusive, "not for the world" (9).
16. Isaiah 53 Teaches Particular
Isaiah 53 is the greatest chapter in the
Old Testament, and possibly in the whole Bible, on our Saviour’s
substitutionary atonement. The "us" for whose sins Christ was "wounded"
(4-6) are given specific names: "my people" (8), "his seed" (10), and
the "many"—not all men head for head (11-12). They are the "pleasure of
the Lord" who "prosper in his hand" (10). God never made the reprobate
"prosper in his hand" and He was never pleased with them (Ps. 2:4-5;
Prov. 3:32-34). They are not His "seed," "people" and "pleasure," so
Jesus did not die for them.
Those for whom Christ died "are
healed" by "his stripes" (Isa. 53:5). It is not merely that they
might be healed if they believe, but they really
are healed. Those whose sins the Son bore are also justified: "my
righteous servant [shall] justify many; for he shall bear their
iniquities" (11). God’s elect "people" (8) are declared perfectly
righteous for Christ bore our punishment (11). The reprobate are
not justified, thus He did not atone for them. It is for the "many"
whose sins He bore that the Saviour intercedes (12). Remember, Jesus
said, "I pray not for the world, but for them which thou hast given me"
(John 17:9). The "many" for whom Christ suffered and for whom He prays
are the elect, not the reprobate world.
In this way, Jesus is perfectly "satisfied"
(Isa. 53:11). If some for whom He was "stricken" (8) and for whom He
intercedes (12) are not healed (5) and justified (11) and do not
"prosper in his hand" (10) and do not receive a share in His spoils
(12), Christ would not be "satisfied" (11). If even one soul perishes
for whom He died, Christ’s purpose is not fully realised, His atonement
is not totally successful and He is dissatisfied. The notion that
Jesus shed His precious blood for everybody head for head presents the
cross as an abject failure with regard to most of those for whom He died
and contradicts the Bible’s teaching that Christ is "satisfied" with the
fruit of His death (11).
17. Ephesians 1 Teaches Particular
Ephesians 1:3 declares that we have been
blessed "with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ."
These blessings come to us "according as he [i.e., God] hath chosen us
in him [i.e., Christ] before the foundation of the world" (4), that is,
we receive all these blessings according to our eternal election (4) and
predestination (5). Ephesians 1 enumerates some of our spiritual
blessings: holiness (4), adoption (5), acceptance with God (6),
redemption (7), the forgiveness of sins (7), the knowledge of God’s will
(9), the sealing of the Holy Spirit (13) and an eternal inheritance (11,
14). Not only are we blessed according to our election (4, 5) but all
the elect have "all spiritual blessings" (3). On the other hand,
the fact that the reprobate are not blessed with any of these spiritual
blessings is also according to the eternal "purpose of him who worketh
all things after the counsel of his own will" (11).
One of the spiritual blessings we have in
Christ is "redemption through his blood" (7). Thus the Son’s redemption
or atonement is an instance of those spiritual blessings which come to
us "according as he has chosen us in him before the foundation of the
world" (4). Therefore, the Lord redeemed, shed His blood and died for
the elect and not for the reprobate. Thus the elect are forgiven (7),
adopted (5), accepted (6), made holy (4) and sealed with the Spirit (13)
for their eternal inheritance (11, 14) on the basis of our Saviour’s
cross. The reprobate do not receive any of the spiritual blessings of
Christ’s sacrifice, for He did not die for them.
18. Romans 8 Teaches Particular
Romans 8 is also contrary to universal
atonement. Verses 28-30 speak of a people whom God foreknew,
predestinated, called according to His purpose, justified, glorified and
conformed to the image of His Son. The apostle draws the following
conclusion: "What shall we then say to these things? If God be for us,
who can be against us?" (31). "Then" or "therefore" indicates that this
is a logical inference based on his preceding statements, here called
"these things." The "us" can only be those predestinated (or elected)
and called according to God’s eternal purpose (28-30). Paul’s argument
is this: If God is "for us" (31) in predestination, calling,
justification and glorification (29-30), then "who can be against
us?" (31). In other words, if God in His eternal decree has chosen us to
everlasting bliss, called us out of darkness into His marvellous light,
acquitted us of all our sins and reckoned us righteous with the very
righteousness of Christ Himself, and glorified us in conforming us to
the image of His Son, then "who can be against us?" (31).
The apostle reinforces this already
compelling argument with another: "He that spared not his own Son, but
delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with him also freely give
us all things?" (32). Who are the "us" referred to twice here for whom
God sent the Saviour to die? Again, they are those predestinated and
called according to God’s eternal purpose (28-30). The only conclusion
is that Christ died for the elect.
If it is objected that the Lord Jesus also
died for the non-elect, then we reply that the passage gives absolutely
no hint of this. In fact, this would make the passage teach that God
sent His Son to die for those who are not predestinated and not called,
justified, glorified or conformed to Christ. Moreover, if it is argued
that the Saviour died for the reprobate, this would make the passage
teach that the reprobate will receive all the blessings of His cross,
for verse 32 teaches that God freely gives "all things" to those for
whom Christ died. The "all things" include freedom from the law of sin
and death (2), life and peace (6), adoption as God’s sons (14), the
witness of the Spirit (16), an eternal inheritance (17), the redemption
of the body at the resurrection of the just (23), the ability to pray in
the Spirit (26), etc. Furthermore, the "all things" would also include
the blessings of justification, calling, glorification and conformity to
Christ according to God’s eternal predestination (28-30)! To read
universal atonement into Romans 8:32 would mean that God freely gives
the blessings of calling, justification and glorification to the
reprobate, those whom He never calls, justifies or glorifies. This verse
teaches an absolutely inseparable connection between those for whom
Christ died and all these spiritual blessings. Some do not receive these
blessings; therefore, the Saviour did not die for them.
Next Romans 8 declares that no charge (33)
and no condemnation (34) can be laid against those who are justified
(33), those for whom Christ died (34). But many charges are righteously
made by the God of heaven against the reprobate wicked so that they are
condemned! This is the case because they are not justified (33), for
Jesus did not die for them and does not intercede for them (34).
19. The Reformed Creeds Teach Particular
On the basis of the Word of God and in
keeping with the biblical arguments in this pamphlet, the creeds of the
Reformed churches—in the British Isles, in continental Europe, in N.
America and all around the world—teach that the Lord died for His elect
church alone. The Canons of Dordt (1618-1619), produced by an
international assembly of Reformed Protestants, clearly affirm that the
Son of God redeemed the elect "and those only" (II:8) and that those who
teach that He died for absolutely everybody speak "contemptuously of the
death of Christ" and "bring again out of hell the Pelagian error"
(II:R:3). American Presbyterian B. B. Warfield writes that the Canons
were "published authoritatively in 1619 as the finding of the Synod [of
Dordt] with the aid of a large body of foreign assessors, representative
practically of the whole Reformed world. The Canons ... therefore ...
[possess] the moral authority of the decrees of practically an
Ecumenical Council throughout the whole body of Reformed Churches" (Works,
vol. 9, p. 144).
The Westminster Confession states, "Neither
are any other redeemed by Christ ... but the elect only" (3:6; cf. 8:1;
11:4; 13:1). These articles were included in the Congregationalist
Savoy Declaration (1658) and the Baptist Confession
(1689). Thus the creeds of Presbyterians, Congregationalists and
Baptists all teach limited atonement or particular redemption. All who
recite the Westminster Shorter Catechism confess that Jesus
Christ is the "only Redeemer of God’s elect" (A. 21). The
Reformed creeds simply set forth the Bible’s teaching on this subject.
Let us believe and hold fast to scriptural truth, spread it near and
far, and honour the crucified and victorious Christ who laid down His
life for His beloved sheep (John 10:15)!
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