The Kingdom of God
Prof. David J. Engelsma
The Kingdom of God’s Dear Son
"Who … hath translated us into the kingdom of his
dear Son" (Col.
The kingdom of God is not as well known among us as
are the covenant of God and the church of God. It does not receive as
much attention in the teaching as do the covenant and the church. This
is a weakness, for the kingdom is of central importance in the
revelation of Holy Scripture.
If the kingdom of God is seen, not as something different from the
covenant but as the distinct form of the covenant, the Dutch Reformed
theologian Herman Ridderbos was right when he said that the kingdom of
God is "the central theme of the whole New Testament revelation of God"
(The Coming of the Kingdom). Mark tells us that Jesus began His
ministry "preaching the gospel of the kingdom of God, and saying, the
time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand: repent ye, and
believe the gospel" (Mark 1:14-15). Everyone knows that Jesus’
favourite form of preaching was the parable, and the parables set forth
the kingdom of God. In explanation of this form of teaching, Jesus
Himself described the content of the parables as "the mysteries of the
kingdom of heaven" (Matt.
13:11). Usually, the parable is introduced by the words, "The
kingdom is like unto ..." In
Luke 4:43, Jesus said that preaching "the kingdom of God" was the
very purpose of His ministry. This was His mission: "Therefore am I
The importance of the kingdom of God, especially in
these last days, is plain from the book of Revelation. The theme of the
book is the victory of the kingdom of God and its king in the great war
between the kingdom of God and the kingdom of the dragon.
As Jesus indicated in
Mark 1 when He said that the coming of the kingdom fulfilled the
time, the kingdom of God was also central in the Old Testament. At the
heart of the Old Testament was the history of Israel, which was the
kingdom of God. At the very centre of that heart was the coming of
Messiah the king.
The biblical truth of the kingdom of God is also of
great interest to us because of the controversies that swirl about it.
The Roman Catholic Church identifies the kingdom of God with its own
papal organization. Liberal Protestantism makes the kingdom of God the
peaceful, prosperous condition of society that results from carrying out
Jesus’ teaching on love and brotherhood. The World Council of Churches
and similar agencies are striving for the kingdom of God, which for them
is a world of united nations; the absence of war, poverty, disease, and
discrimination; and the enjoyment of earthly well-being.
For many fundamentalists and evangelicals all over
the world, the kingdom of God is a future Jewish nation in Palestine
that will be ruled by Jesus and that will continue for 1000 years. These
are the premillennial dispensationalists. This view of the kingdom is
very influential among religious people. Today it makes inroads into the
secular world, at least in the United States. The last few months books
in a series called "Left Behind" are high on the New York Times
bestseller list. These books are the fictionalised and popularised
presentation of the doctrinal notion that the kingdom of God is to be a
restored nation of Israel.
Closer to home, certain Reformed and Presbyterian
theologians teach the kingdom of God as mainly a worldwide earthly rule
of all nations by the church in the future before the second coming of
We may not overlook that the kingdom of God has
practical significance for us. We are citizens of the kingdom of God
according to the apostle in
Colossians 1:13. Implied are our blessedness and our calling.
By the kingdom of God in this and following
editorials we have in mind God’s reign by Jesus Christ in distinction
from God’s rule over all things by His almighty power. The kingdom of
God that is central in the gospel of the Scriptures is God’s reign of
grace by the Spirit and Word of the incarnate, crucified, and risen Son
of God. This is proved from Jesus’ announcement at the beginning of His
ministry, "The kingdom of God is at hand" (Mark
1:15). The kingdom was then near to be established. God’s sovereign
rule of all as Creator, of course, was always a reality.
That the kingdom of God is God’s reign of grace in Christ is also proved
by the second petition of the model prayer: "Thy kingdom come." The
coming of the kingdom implies a progressive realization of the kingdom
of God. One day in the future, as the Heidelberg Catechism
explains in Lord’s Day 48, "the full perfection of [God’s] kingdom
[will] take place." This cannot be said of God’s almighty rule over all
by His power. God’s rule of power does not come, but is. But it is true
of God’s gracious reign in Jesus Christ that it comes.
The kingdom of God is the same as the kingdom of
Christ. Sometimes the New Testament speaks of the kingdom of God; at
other times it speaks of the kingdom of Christ. One and the same kingdom
is in view. Kingdom of God emphasizes that the triune God conceived and
established this kingdom and that the kingdom exists for His sake.
Kingdom of Christ brings out that God conceived and established this
kingdom in Jesus Christ and that Christ governs this kingdom on God’s
behalf, as the servant of God.
Since some deny that the kingdom of God and the
kingdom of Christ are identical, explaining them as two different
kingdoms, and since this results in serious error about the kingdom of
God, the identity should be demonstrated. In
Colossians 1:13 the apostle tells us that we have been translated
into "the kingdom of God’s dear Son," that is, the kingdom of Christ. In
I Thessalonians 2:12 the same apostle tells us that God has called
us unto "his kingdom," that is, the kingdom of God. The kingdom of God’s
dear Son and the kingdom of God are one and the same.
Ephesians 5:5 calls the kingdom by both names: "the kingdom of
Christ and of God."
The kingdom of God, therefore, is the Messianic
kingdom of salvation and glory. In his commentary on the second petition
of the model prayer, Herman Hoeksema describes it as "the commonwealth
in which God is King, in which He is known and acknowledged, loved and
freely obeyed, by willing subjects as the only Sovereign of all, whose
Word is law, written in the hearts of all the citizens of the kingdom" (The
Triple Knowledge, vol. 3, p. 518). It is the kingdom typified and
prophesied in the Old Testament by the nation of Israel, especially in
connection with the kingships of David and Solomon. It is the kingdom
established as a reality in the world by the incarnation and ministry of
Jesus Christ and extended throughout the world by the preaching of the
gospel, first by the apostles and then by a church faithful to the great
The kingdom of God brings deliverance from the
tyranny and death of sin and bestows righteousness and eternal life. To
be in the kingdom is to enjoy God, whereas to be outside the kingdom is
to perish under His wrath. According to
Colossians 1:12-13, when God translated, or transferred, us into
the kingdom of the Son of His love, He blessed us in two wonderful ways.
He rescued us from the power of darkness, and He made us partakers of
the inheritance of the saints in light.
Revelation 22:15 represents the final state of the damned as
exclusion from the city, which is the "full perfection of the kingdom of
God" spoken of by the Heidelberg Catechism in Lord’s Day 48.
Outside the kingdom will be dogs, sorcerers, whoremongers, murderers,
idolaters, and whosoever loves and makes a lie.
The kingdom of God will be the kingdom of Jesus
Christ forever. It is a mistake to suppose that the kingdom of Christ
will end with the second coming of the Lord Jesus, when He has perfected
the kingdom of God His Father. Some make this mistake on the basis of a
faulty understanding of
I Corinthians 15:24-28. Verse 25 teaches that Christ must reign
"till he hath put all enemies under his feet." Verse 24 teaches that
when Christ has finally put all enemies under His feet, He will deliver
up the kingdom to God the Father. Some explain the passage as teaching
that this will be the end of the Messianic kingdom. Christ will no
longer be king. Kingship over the perfected kingdom of God in the entire
renewed creation will be exercised directly by the triune God.
But the Bible elsewhere clearly teaches that Jesus
Christ is an everlasting king and that the kingdom of Christ—the
Messianic kingdom—is everlasting. According to
Daniel 7:14, the kingdom that is given to the Son of Man by the
Ancient of Days is "an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away,
and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed."
Revelation 22:1, 3, which pictures the kingdom of God which Jesus
Christ has established, defended, and perfected, unmistakably speaks of
the "throne of God and of the Lamb." Correctly, Lord’s Day 12 of the
Heidelberg Catechism calls Jesus "our eternal king."
I Corinthians 15, the apostle does not teach that Christ will one
day cease being the king of the kingdom of God under God His Father. But
he teaches that the goal of Christ’s reign is the subduing of all His
enemies. When He accomplishes this at His second coming and when at the
same time He perfects the kingdom in all the new world, He will, in a
solemn ceremony, present the kingdom to God as the accomplishment of the
work that God gave Him to do. Under God and on behalf of God, Christ
will continue to reign over the kingdom forever.
This honours Christ and delights us, as William
Symington states at the end of his fine defence of the everlasting
kingship of Christ against the mistaken interpretation of
I Corinthians 15:24-28:
It cannot but be honouring to Christ to regard
him as reigning for ever and ever; and it cannot but be pleasing,
beyond all description, to his saints to think that they are never
to lose sight of him as their King, never to cease to be his
subjects, never but to yield him their grateful heartfelt homage. It
cannot but rejoice them to know that they are to be ever under his
rule, and that, even after they are taken to glory, they shall
continue to behold him as the Lamb in the midst of the throne for
ever and ever. What a prospect! How should it excite us to prepare
for its being realized! Happy they who, having submitted themselves
to him in time as King of saints, shall be eternally under his sway
as King of glory! (Messiah the Prince, p. 348).
The Kingdom of the Rule of God
"Who … hath translated us into the kingdom of his
dear Son" (Col.
The basic idea of the kingdom is the rule of God—the
living, actual, liberating, saving, blessed rule of God in Jesus Christ.
We may think of it this way. The whole world lies enslaved to the reign
of Satan. Into this world breaks the reign of God, freeing many from the
misery, terror, sin, death, and hell of the dark lord, translating them
into the knowledge, righteousness, peace, and life of His reign. This is
what Jesus proclaimed at the beginning of His ministry: The rule of God
is at hand! This is the explanation, why the gospel is called the gospel
of the kingdom: the content is the rule of God in Christ.
It is a mistake to understand the kingdom
exclusively, or even mainly, in terms of a realm, or in terms of
citizens. The kingdom of God is certainly a realm, a territory, just as
the United States is a certain land-mass with clearly defined
boundaries. Jesus spoke in John 3:5 of entering the kingdom. The
church has the keys of the kingdom, giving entrance into the realm to
some and barring others from it. This realm is the church, including the
godly lives of her members in every sphere of earthly life.
The kingdom of God has citizens, just as every
earthly nation has citizens. These are the elect out of all earthly
nations and races. In the day of the final judgment, the Son of Man on
His throne will say to the sheep on His right hand, "Come, ye blessed of
my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of
the world" (Matt.
25:34). These persons show themselves citizens by obeying God the
king: They believe the gospel, and submit to the laws of the kingdom.
The citizens of the kingdom include the children—the infant children—of
elect believers. It is a grievous error on the part of Reformed
ministers and churches to minimize the seriousness of the Baptist
heresy. Indeed, this error will prove fatal to the Reformed faith in
these churches. Reformed ministers are guilty of this error. They
cooperate freely with Baptists in public religious activities. They
refuse sharply to condemn the Baptist exclusion from the covenant and
church of God of many for whom Christ died and to whom the Spirit of
Christ is promised (see Heidelberg Catechism, Q. & A. 74). In flat
contradiction of their own creed, which declares that the Reformed faith
detests the error of the Baptists, they write openly that the issue of
infant baptism is not of fundamental importance (see Belgic Confession 34).
The inclusion of the children of believers in the
kingdom of God, by infant baptism, is an essential truth of the kingdom.
It is a truth that must be vigorously defended and promoted wherever the
Reformed faith makes its distinctive witness. It is a truth that is
fundamental to the oneness of the kingdom of God in the Old and New
Testaments. It is a truth that is fundamental to the rejection of the
miserable corruption of the kingdom by dispensationalism.
Concerning infant children (and this is what they
were according to the Greek word that is used in the passage), Jesus
said, "of such is the kingdom of God" (Luke
18:17). As regards its citizens, the kingdom of God is made up of
such infant children.
Mark 10:14 tells us that Jesus was indignant with His disciples for
attempting to exclude the infant children from Jesus’ kingdom. What
earthly king would not be irate at the attempt by some underling to
strip a substantial number of his people of their citizenship and banish
them from his realm?
In addition to being a realm and having citizens, the
kingdom of God provides benefits. The kingdom can be identified with
these benefits, just as one might have said in the early days of World
War II, that England was liberty in the midst of the tyranny of a Europe
overrun by Nazi Germany. Paul identifies the kingdom of God with its
wonderful blessings in
Romans 14:17: "For the kingdom of God is not meat and drink; but
righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost."
Important as realm, citizens, and benefits are as aspects of the
kingdom, they are not the main thing. The main thing is the rule of God.
First and central in the kingdom of God is the king. The kingdom of God
is simply God the king and His kingship.
We modern Westerners have a hard time grasping this,
familiar as we are with democracy and unfamiliar as we are with real
monarchs. An Englishman during the reign of King Henry VIII would have
had no problem understanding. Recent history, however, has shown us
something of the primacy and centrality of the "leader" in his kingdom.
The mighty kingdom of Nazi Germany in the 1930s and 1940s was the
creation of Adolf Hitler—the extension of his powerful will. Hitler
dominated that kingdom. It existed for him. That was certainly true of
the great empires of Old Testament times. Babylon was simply
Nebuchadnezzar enlarged. This will be the case also with the coming
kingdom of Antichrist.
What is true of earthly kingdoms—the centrality of
the ruler—is originally and supremely true of the kingdom of God in
Christ. It is the kingdom of God because God establishes, maintains, and
perfects the kingdom. He conceived and planned it in His decree. He
founded it in the cross of the incarnate Son. He builds it by the
preaching of the gospel in all the world in the power of the Spirit of
Jesus Christ. He brings every one who is a citizen according to eternal
election into the kingdom by the sovereign wonder of regeneration:
"Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into
the kingdom of God" (John
3:5). Having regenerated, He sanctifies every citizen to live the
life of the kingdom and preserves him to the glory of the perfection of
the kingdom. He will perfect the kingdom in the Day of Christ, raising
the dead and renewing the entire creation of heaven and earth.
God, God only, is the creator, the origin, of the
kingdom. The kingdom comes from Him, not from man. The kingdom,
therefore, depends upon God—upon God only.
In part, this is the meaning of the description of
the kingdom as the "kingdom of heaven." When Jesus said to Pilate in
John 18:36, "My kingdom is not of this world ... my kingdom [is] not
from hence," He was saying something about the origin of His kingdom.
His kingdom—the kingdom of God—is not from this world; it does not have
its origin in this world. Implied, positively, is that Jesus’ kingdom
originates in heaven; it comes from God.
The kingdom is the kingdom of God also because it is
for God, has its ultimate goal in His glory, and is about Him. The
kingdom of God is God-centred. How Christ and the apostles proclaim
this! We think at once of the conclusion of the model prayer in
Matthew 6: "For thine is the kingdom." The Heidelberg Catechism
explains: "... and all this we pray for, that thereby not we, but Thy
holy name may be glorified forever" (Q.& A. 128). Describing the perfection
of the kingdom, when Christ shall have put all enemies under His feet,
the apostle declares that then God will be all in all (I
The kingdom is for the sake of God in these respects.
First, the message, or gospel, of the kingdom is all about God, is a
God-centred message. This is the content of the gospel in Scripture.
This was the content of the gospel preached by the Reformation. This is
still the content of the gospel proclaimed by the true church. How much
is this true in the preaching and teaching of evangelical and even
Reformed churches today?
Second, in the kingdom God’s will governs the life
and behaviour of the citizens. God’s law governs our personal lives:
regarding church membership; regarding dating and marriage; regarding
life in the family; regarding business and labour; regarding civil
government; regarding eating and drinking.
God’s law also governs the life of the instituted
church: regarding worship; regarding doctrine; regarding discipline;
regarding offices; regarding denominational connections.
Third, in the kingdom our will, pleasures,
friendships, families, and very lives are so subject to the king, that
we are called to sacrifice them to God’s glory when this may be
necessary. The kingdom is the kingdom of God. The king does not exist
for the citizens, but we citizens exist for the king. When professing
Christians, facing some personal suffering or loss, whine, "Christ would
never require such hardship and pain of me," they show that they do not
know the kingdom as the kingdom of God.
What all this truth about the kingdom of God comes
down to is the grand testimony of the Reformed faith, that salvation is
by sovereign grace alone to the glory of God only. The message of the
kingdom of God is nothing other than the gospel of sovereign grace. God
saves His elect by regenerating grace, apart from any worth of theirs,
any faith or decision of theirs, any acceptance of an offer that
distinguishes them from others whom He is supposed to love also. God
preserves His elect, regenerated people. God so rules His own by the
sanctifying Spirit that they yield to His lordship, obeying His law in
every sphere of life and gladly suffering the loss of all for His sake.
God builds His church.
That God is God in Jesus Christ is not some queer,
parochial, and even sectarian message of a small Reformed denomination
in North America, but the very gospel that Jesus came preaching and that
He Himself still preaches by a faithful church and her ministry.
By this criterion must every proposed "kingdom of
God" be tested. Is God central in the kingdom? Is He all in all?
Where now is this kingdom of God, this rule of God in
It is in heaven, according to
Philippians 3:20, where Christ the king is, at God’s right hand.
It is also in the world. It is wherever Christ the
king is. Since Christ Jesus is present in the preaching of the gospel
and in the administration of the sacraments, wherever the gospel is
preached and the sacraments administered, there is the kingdom of
God—the blessed, saving, God-glorifying rule of God. We ought to press
into it, as Jesus taught in
Luke 16:16. We do this by believing in Him, the king.
By the gospel and the sacraments the rule of God,
which liberates sinners, is established in the heart and life of every
one who has been born again by the Spirit.
The institutional form of the kingdom is the church.
The relation of the kingdom and the church will be the subject of
Are we in the kingdom? Has God translated us into the
kingdom of His dear Son?
He has, if we see it, if we live its life, if we find
in ourselves some zeal for glorifying God the king.
What a privilege! Let us be thankful.
What a blessing! It is salvation.
What a calling! Our life must be our seeking the
What a hope! We will reign with Christ forever in the
The Kingdom Is Not Carnal
"Who … hath translated us into the kingdom of his
dear Son" (Col.
In the two previous articles articles, I introduced
the great subject of the kingdom of God. The first article established
that "the kingdom of God that is central in the gospel of the Scriptures
is God’s reign of grace by the Spirit and Word of the incarnate,
crucified, and risen Son of God." It is "God’s reign of grace in
Christ," in distinction from God’s rule over all things by His almighty
The second article contended that "the basic idea of
the kingdom is the rule of God—the living, actual, liberating, saving,
blessed rule of God in Jesus Christ." Although the kingdom includes a
realm, has citizens (including the children of believers), and provides
benefits, it is the rule of God in Christ. The kingdom of God is simply
God the king and His kingship. This article concluded by promising a
study of the relation of the kingdom of God and the church. The present
editorial begins to fulfil this promise.
I state the fundamental truth concerning the relation
of the kingdom and the church as clearly, sharply, and succinctly as
possible: The kingdom of God in our present, New Testament age is the
Some may disagree, but no one can fail to understand.
This simple, basic truth about the kingdom is, first,
the teaching of the Bible. Second, it is the historical and confessional
position of the Reformed and Presbyterian churches, indeed, of the
Reformation churches generally.
It is also a truth that needs to be taught and
defended everywhere in the world. The reason is that this truth is
widely challenged. Under the pressure of teachings that make the kingdom
of God something different from the church, professing Christians are
doubtful about the identification of the kingdom and the church. One
practical (and fatal) result is disparagement, if not contempt, for the
church, including lively membership in the true church.
We must be clear as to our terms. By "kingdom of
God," we mean the rule of God in Christ. This rule forms a realm within
which Christ’s reign on God’s behalf holds sway. In closest connection
with this realm is the populace, the citizenry, and then not as so many
regenerated individuals but as a united, well-ordered "commonwealth," or
nation. Within the realm, the citizens enjoy the blessings of the
kingdom of God.
By the church, every Reformed Christian will
understand the universal body of Jesus Christ made up of all the elect
out of all nations and manifesting itself in the true, local, instituted
congregation. Recalling Jesus’ teaching that at His first coming the
kingdom was "nigh," we shall have in mind the New Testament, fulfilled,
mature form of the church. Old Testament Israel was the church all
right, but as Paul teaches in
Galatians 4:1ff. only in an immature, undeveloped form.
The kingdom of God is the church. The living reign of
God in Christ by the Word and Spirit is the church. The realm is the
sphere of the church. The citizens are the members of the church. The
blessings of the kingdom are poured out on and enjoyed in the church.
There is a truth about the kingdom of God that is
basic to the confession that the kingdom of God is the church. This is
the truth that the kingdom of God is spiritual. Spirituality is an
essential quality of the kingdom of God. Knowledge of the spiritual
nature of the kingdom is essential to the right belief about the
kingdom. The great errors about the kingdom that are afoot today have
this in common, that they view the kingdom as earthly, as political, as
carnal. This is the gross, wicked error of dispensationalism, that makes
the kingdom of God an earthly Jewish world-power. This is the gross,
wicked error of the liberals, that makes the kingdom an earthly,
one-world government, which will satisfy all the fleshly desires of
godless mankind: plenty to eat and drink; the gratification of every
perverse sexual lust; the elimination of all inconvenient persons—unborn
babies, old people, sick people, and, eventually, orthodox Christians;
and the eradication of war and social strife.
Viewing the kingdom as carnal is also the error of
those who suppose that the most important realization of the kingdom of
God will be an earthly, political, visibly glorious Christian empire
that Christ will rear up in the world before His second coming. Yes,
they will agree, somewhat impatiently, the church is a manifestation of
the kingdom at present. But the superior manifestation of the kingdom of
God, the Messianic kingdom in its best and fullest form, the kingdom
that finally fulfils the prophecy of the Old Testament in
Psalm 72 and similar passages will be that future, earthly
world-power that will have Christianised all nations.
Against these errors and on behalf of the right
understanding of the kingdom of God, we must believe and confess that
the kingdom of God is spiritual.
In his book, Thy Kingdom Come, Rousas J.
Rushdoony, father of the Christian Reconstruction movement, says this:
"The reduction of the kingdom of God to a spiritual realm is in effect a
denial of the kingdom" (p. 178). I appreciate that Rushdoony sees the
fundamental issue concerning the kingdom and states this issue bluntly.
But in flat contradiction to this statement, I maintain that Scripture
teaches that the kingdom of God in Jesus Christ is essentially and
entirely a spiritual realm. I maintain further that every denial of the
spirituality of the kingdom is a denial of the kingdom of God.
It is significant that Rushdoony utters this denial,
that the kingdom is spiritual, in the context of his denial that the
church is to be identified with the kingdom: "The church ... is not to
be identified as the kingdom of God, but simply as a part of the
kingdom" (p. 178). Mr. Rushdoony practiced what he preached. Writing in
1991, fellow Christian Reconstructionist Gary North informed the world
that "Rushdoony does not belong to a local church, nor has he taken
communion in two decades, except when he is on the road, speaking at a
church that has a policy of open communion or is unaware of his
non-member status" (Westminster’s Confession, p. 80).
In explanation of the spirituality of the kingdom of
God, negatively, the kingdom is not earthly in nature. It does not
consist of dominion by physical force—the sword and its terror. It does
not promise or provide earthly blessings and goods—earthly peace and
material prosperity. It does not claim any earthly country for its
territory—Palestine, North America, Scotland, or the Netherlands. It
does not possess or display any earthly glory—power, weapons, numbers,
size, or impressive leader (the Christ of the biblical gospel of the
cross is not impressive to the natural man). Indeed, its citizens are
not citizens by virtue of any earthly characteristic, whether race, sex,
nationality, status, or achievement.
In keeping with its unearthly nature, the kingdom of
God cannot be known by man’s physical senses. This is literally what
Jesus said to Nicodemus in
John 3:3: "Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of
God." Christ taught the same thing in
Luke 17:20 when, in response to the Pharisees’ question, when the
kingdom of God should come, He said, "The kingdom of God cometh not with
observation." The kingdom comes without "observation" in that the manner
of its coming is invisible.
The kingdom of God, therefore, is unlike every other
(human) kingdom. It is radically unlike all other kingdoms. It is unlike
all other kingdoms in quality, in its essential nature. It is another
kind of kingdom from that of Babylon, Rome, the British Empire, Germany,
modern Israel or the United States.
The Kingdom Is Spiritual
"Who … hath translated us into the kingdom of his
dear Son" (Col.
The kingdom of God is spiritual. It is spiritual
rule, or government. It affords spiritual benefits. It creates and
occupies a spiritual territory. It reflects a spiritual glory. It
creates a spiritual citizenry.
It is not fantastic, imaginary, and ghostly, like C.
S. Lewis’ Narnia, or J. R. R. Tolkien’s middle earth, or J. K. Rowling’s
Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. It is a real kingdom. It is
present in the world, exercising its tremendous power, creating and
empowering its citizens, advancing and enlarging with invincible force,
destroying the weapons and defences of its enemies. So real is the
kingdom of God to us who have been translated into it by being begotten
from above, so that we now have the spiritual sight of faith to see it,
that the kingdom of God is the solid, substantial reality, whereas all
earthly kingdoms are frail, fleeting shadows.
Oh yes, the kingdom of God is reality, but it is
spiritual reality. Spiritual does not mean unreal. Spiritual means
unreal only to the unspiritual—the materialist, the natural man (I
Cor. 2:9-16). Spiritual describes the kind of reality. There is a
physical reality, for example, the United States of America. There is a
spiritual reality, namely, the kingdom of God.
We do not doubt spiritual reality, do we? We do not
esteem spiritual reality less than the physical and earthly, do we? We
have not become crass Darwinian materialists, have we? Why, as
Christians, our ultimate hope is a spiritual body in a perfectly,
exclusively spiritual world, according to
I Corinthians 15:44-49:
It is sown a natural body; it is raised a
spiritual body. There is a natural body, and there is a spiritual
body. And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living
soul; the last Adam was made a quickening spirit. Howbeit that was
not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural; and
afterward that which is spiritual. The first man is of the earth,
earthy: the second man is the Lord from heaven. As is the earthy,
such are they also that are earthy: and as is the heavenly, such are
they also that are heavenly. And as we have borne the image of the
earthy, we shall also bear the image of the heavenly.
The Spirituality of the Kingdom
As spiritual, the kingdom of God is the creation of
the Spirit of Jesus Christ. Nebuchadnezzar created Babylon; Franklin,
Jefferson, Washington, and others created the United States; Hitler
created Nazi Germany. The Spirit of Christ created the kingdom of God.
The kingdom of God is spiritual, in the second place,
in that its life and power are the life and power of the risen, exalted
Jesus Christ. In His resurrection, Jesus has passed into a new life and
has received hitherto unknown power, the highest life and greatest power
that man can possess and wield: immortal, eternal life! life-giving,
death-overcoming, irresistible power!
This is the teaching of the apostle in
I Corinthians 15:42ff. There is a spiritual body: the body of the
risen Jesus Christ. The last Adam—Jesus Christ—was made a "quickening
spirit." Jesus Christ and everything about Him is spiritual. Now the
kingdom of God in the world is simply the life and power of the risen
Jesus Christ in history. Since Jesus is spiritual, so is, and must be
(and cannot but be), His kingdom. In the language of
I Corinthians 15, the kingdom is not "natural," is not "earthy."
So much is it true that the kingdom of God is not
earthy, that the Bible describes it as heavenly. This is its nature, its
quality. This is the kind of kingdom it is. The kingdom of God is the
heavenly life and power of Jesus Christ breaking into our world. There
is first a beachhead in Palestine. Then, over the years the kingdom
expands throughout the whole world, until finally in the Day of Christ,
by the wonder of the second coming, the life and power of Christ renew
the entire creation as the kingdom of God.
There is something mysterious about the kingdom of
God, therefore. Of course, there is. We are familiar with earthly
kingdoms: the will to earthly, political power; the lust for earthly
glory; earthly force terrifying or enthralling the citizens; the
enjoyment of earthly peace and prosperity. But this spiritual kingdom is
new and different.
Nevertheless, Scripture reveals something of the
spiritual kingdom, and we who have been translated into it experience
the beginnings of its life and power. The kingdom is characterized by
truth, and the truth is the Word of God—the gospel of inspired
Scripture, including the law. The kingdom is characterized by
righteousness, and righteousness is the justification of the sinner by
faith alone, followed by a life of obedience to the law of God. The
kingdom is characterized by peace, and peace is a tranquil, harmonious
relation with God by the pardon of sins and in the way of walking with
Him in holiness. The kingdom is characterized by service, and the
service is confessing the Lordship of Jesus Christ and doing His will.
The kingdom is characterized by prosperity, and the prosperity is the
riches of salvation.
Scripture on the Spirituality of the Kingdom
Scripture teaches that the kingdom is spiritual.
Writing to the saints at Colosse in the middle of the first century
A.D., when there certainly was no earthly, visible, political Christian
kingdom, the apostle declared that every one who is born again and
believes the gospel has thereby been transferred into the kingdom of the
Son of God’s love, that is, into the Messianic kingdom of God (Col.
1:13). On the one hand, this demolishes the notion that the kingdom
of Christ is a future, millennial, Jewish state and world-power. On the
other hand, it likewise demolishes all earthly conceptions of the
kingdom. If we who believe the gospel are now in the kingdom (and
Colossians 1:13 assures us that we are), the kingdom is present and
spiritual. If Paul and the Colossian Christians were already in the
kingdom of Christ (and
Colossians 1:13 says that they were), the kingdom of Christ broke
into the world on the day of Pentecost as a spiritual kingdom.
Then, there is Jesus’ word to Pilate in
John 18:36, a word that is absolutely crucial to the right
understanding of the kingdom: "My kingdom is not of this world." To be
sure, Jesus described the origin of His kingdom. He is king. Make no
mistake about it. He has a kingdom: "My kingdom." This kingdom, however,
does not originate in this world. It originates from heaven. But the
origin determines its nature. It is not this-worldly, but other-worldly.
It is heavenly.
The proof is plain and abundant. First, it stands in
the nature of the case. That which comes from heaven, specifically, from
God through the crucified and risen Christ in the Spirit of Christ, must
be as heavenly as its source.
Second, the heavenly nature of the kingdom is
indicated by the implication that Jesus drew from the heavenly origin of
His kingdom: His servants do not fight. The servants do not fight to
defend their king from death. They do not fight to promote the kingdom.
They do not use physical force, or the threat of it, to extend or
maintain the kingdom. Jesus referred to the prohibition against physical
force that He had given to Peter in the garden: "Put up thy sword into
the sheath" (John
18:10-11). This is a law concerning the defence and promotion of
the kingdom until the end of this age. Unmistakably, it describes the
kingdom as spiritual. Being spiritual, the kingdom of God can only be
promoted and defended by spiritual means. This spiritual means is the
Word of God (II
Third, that Jesus’ description of the origin of His
kingdom was also the description of its heavenly nature is proved from
Jesus’ statement in
John 18:37 that He establishes and promotes His kingdom by bearing
witness to the truth. The kingdom of God is the oddest kingdom that ever
there was. Winston Churchill once remarked about all earthly kingdoms in
wartime that "the first casualty of war is truth." Although the kingdom
of God is always at war in history, it employs only the truth for its
defence and advancement. This is clear testimony by Christ that His
kingdom is heavenly.
Fourth, there is proof of the heavenly nature of the kingdom of God in
the conclusion that Pilate came to on the basis of Jesus’ word in verse
36, "My kingdom is not of this world." Pilate concluded that the kingdom
of Jesus was no threat to Rome as the Jewish leaders had made it out to
be—a threat by plots of sedition, by physical force, by revolution. "I
find in him no fault" was the verdict of the representative of Rome, who
had an eagle-eye for rival kings and kingdoms (John
The heavenly origin of the kingdom of God, taught by
John 18:33-40, determines its heavenly nature. This was the
understanding of the Scottish Presbyterian, James Bannerman.
Christ seeks to disabuse the mind of Pilate, in
regard to the nature of His Church, of the idea that it might be
like any of the powers of this world, established or upheld by
force; He tells him that it is spiritual in its nature and
authority, and therefore not liable to become an object of jealousy
to the state, as trenching upon its authority or jurisdiction (The
Church of Christ [Edinburgh, 1974], vol. 2, p. 163).
The virtual definition of the kingdom of God in
Romans 14:17 proves the kingdom to be spiritual, not physical: "The
kingdom of God is not meat and drink; but righteousness, and peace, and
joy in the Holy Ghost." These spiritual realities are what the kingdom
essentially is. The kingdom of God is not anything earthly whatever.
The spirituality of the kingdom of God is offensive
to multitudes today. That many stumble over the spiritual nature of the
kingdom of God grieves us. But it does not surprise us. Exactly this was
the offence of the kingship and kingdom of the Messiah to the Jews of
Jesus’ own day. (For a fuller defence of the spirituality of the
Messianic kingdom of God, especially against the carnal kingdom of
Christian Reconstruction, see
David Engelsma, Christ’s Spiritual Kingdom: A Defence of Reformed
Amillennialism [Redlands, CA: The Reformed Witness, 2001]—available
from the CPRC Bookstore).
The Kingdom Is the Church
"Who … hath translated us into the kingdom of his
dear Son" (Col.
The spirituality of the kingdom of God is offensive
to multitudes today. That many stumble over the spiritual nature of the
kingdom of God grieves us. But it does not surprise us. Exactly this was
the offence of the kingship and kingdom of the Messiah to the Jews of
Jesus’ own day.
John 6, the Jews had their hearts set on a carnal, political kingdom
with earthly power, prosperity, and peace. This was how they understood
the Old Testament prophecies of the coming Messianic kingdom, e.g.,
Isaiah 11 and
Isaiah 65. The Jews stumbled over the spirituality of the kingdom of
God in the Messiah. This was the rock of offence that dashed them to
pieces both nationally and personally. Nationally, they repudiated the
king who rides into Jerusalem on a donkey, dies on a cross, and
exercises sovereign power by the preaching of Christ crucified. And
nationally they perish in the judgment of the destruction of Jerusalem
in AD 70. The kingdom is taken from them and given to the believing,
largely Gentile church (Matt.
21:43). Personally, the Jews who want to place an earthly crown on
Jesus’ head "went back and walked no more with him" (John
To His closest disciples, Jesus then put a question
that concerned the kind of king and kingdom they desired: "Will ye also
go away?" (John
6:67) He puts the same question to us today.
To Reformed and Presbyterian Christians today, the
warning is necessary: Beware, lest at this late hour in history you also
stumble over the spiritual kingdom of Christ Jesus!
Where now, we must ask, is this spiritual kingdom of
God? Where does God rule by the Word and Spirit of Jesus Christ? Where
are righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost? Where is truth?
Where are the people who bow willingly to God in Christ by believing the
gospel and obeying the law—obeying the law truly, with love in their
hearts? Where on earth is there at least the small beginning of God’s
being all in all?
Where in the past 2000 years or so of New Testament
history, since Jesus was exalted as king at God’s right hand in the
ascension, have there always been these realities? Where alone have
these things been found?
The answer to these questions will be the
identification of the kingdom of God.
The answer is: the church. The church is the kingdom
This is the confession of the Reformed faith both
among the Reformed churches and among the Presbyterians. The
Heidelberg Catechism identifies the keys of the kingdom of heaven as
the preaching of the gospel and Christian discipline by which believers
are accepted of God in the fellowship of the congregation and by which
unbelievers are excluded from the fellowship of God and excommunicated
from the church. Thus this creed identifies the church as the kingdom.
Thus also, the Catechism teaches that the kingdom is spiritual (L.D.
31). The same Reformed confession explains the second petition of the
model prayer, about the coming of the kingdom, this way: "preserve and
increase Thy church" (L.D. 48).
The Belgic Confession establishes the
identification of the church as the kingdom as Reformed orthodoxy when
it declares Christ to be the king of the church: "This church hath been
from the beginning of the world, and will be to the end thereof; which
is evident from this, that Christ is an eternal King, which, without
subjects, cannot be" (Art. 32).
The Westminster Confession of Faith is
explicit: "The visible church, which is also catholic or universal under
the gospel … is the kingdom of the Lord Jesus Christ" (25:2).
Significantly, the Confession immediately adds, "the house and family of
God." The phrase that is added is significant because it shows that the
Confession has its eye on
I Timothy 3, where the phrase is found. And
I Timothy 3 is describing and prescribing the life of the instituted
church, the church with bishops and deacons. Westminster teaches that
the local congregation that displays the marks of the true church is the
kingdom of Jesus Christ in the world. Recent hesitation on the part of
Reformed and Presbyterian people bluntly to confess, "The church is the
kingdom of God," is strange and ominous departure from the Reformed
confessions. Much more reprehensible is the open criticism of this
confession by Reformed and Presbyterian office-bearers, who have vowed to
uphold the confessions.
This recent hesitancy and opposition are also notable
departure from the doctrine of Luther and Calvin. Calvin’s commentary on
Amos 9:13 expressed the Reformer’s position on the matter of the
church and the kingdom.
"The Spirit under these figurative expressions
declares, that the kingdom of Christ shall in every way be happy and
blessed, or that the Church of God, which means the same thing,
shall be blessed, when Christ shall begin to reign" (emphasis added).
His commentary on
Amos 9 is especially telling because the passage prophesies the
coming kingdom of the Messiah and describes this kingdom in the typical
language of earthly power, prosperity, and peace that both kinds of
millennialists love to take literally.
Louis Berkhof accurately described the view of the
The Reformers did not formulate a doctrine of the
Kingdom as clear-cut and elaborate as that of the Middle Ages, nor
could they point to such a concrete embodiment of the earthly reign
of Christ as the Church of Rome. They agreed in identifying it with
the invisible Church, the community of the elect, or of the saints
of God. For them it was first of all a religious concept, the reign
of God in the hearts of believers, the regnum Christi spirituale
or internum. At the same time they did not overlook its
ethical implications, as Ritschl often contends. One and all they
opposed the fanatical attempts of the Anabaptists and their kin, to
set up in the world an external Kingdom of God; and recognized the
legitimacy of the authority of civil governments, though their
relation to the Church was a matter of dispute among them. They did
not expect the external visible form of the Kingdom of God until the
glorious appearance of Jesus Christ (The Kingdom of God
[Eerdmans, 1951], p. 24).
In identifying the church as the kingdom, the
Reformed confessions are biblical. The issue is virtually decided by
Scripture’s teaching that the kingdom is not earthly, or carnal, but
heavenly and spiritual. Some of these passages, I have brought up and
explained in previous articles.
One outstanding text is that which appears as the
heading of each of the articles in this series: "Who … hath translated
us into the kingdom of his dear Son" (Col.
1:13). When Paul wrote the Colossians that they and all believers
had been translated by the gospel into the kingdom of God’s dear Son,
what did those Colossians understand by "the kingdom of God’s dear Son"?
What did they understand this kingdom to be when the apostle declared
that the main blessing to be enjoyed in this kingdom is "redemption
through his blood, even the forgiveness of sins" (v. 14)? Does anyone
suppose that the Colossians understood the kingdom to be some earthly
rule that dominated culture and "Christianized" society? Does anyone
question that the Colossians understood the kingdom to be Christ’s
In addition to the texts that teach that God’s
kingdom is spiritual, the following passages of Scripture are among
those that plainly teach that the church is the kingdom of God. There is
the well-known word of Jesus Christ to Peter after the disciple
confessed that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of the living God.
And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter,
and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell
shall not prevail against it. And I will give unto thee the keys of
the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall
be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall
be loosed in heaven (Matt.
The passage explicitly mentions the church: "I will
build my church." To the church is given "the keys of the kingdom of
heaven." These keys are the spiritual power to bind in sin or loose from
sin and thus admit into or exclude from the kingdom of heaven. Only the
kingdom itself exercises its keys. The church, therefore, is the kingdom
of heaven. This is confirmed by the Lord’s teaching that the church
fights the gates of hell. The church fights the gates of hell inasmuch
as she is the kingdom of heaven fighting the kingdom of the devil, sin,
The beatitudes in
Matthew 5 and indeed the entire "Sermon on the Mount" in
Matthew 5-7 identify the church as the kingdom. This sermon by the
king of the kingdom Himself describes the law and life of the kingdom of
heaven. And this law and life are the law and life of the church.
Likewise, all the parables of Jesus prove that the
church is the kingdom. The parables teach various aspects of the kingdom
of heaven: "The kingdom is like unto ...." And the realm thus described,
the realm where these aspects of the kingdom are reality, is the church.
To take one example, where is it that the king forgives his servants ten
thousand talents so that the servants are called to forgive each other,
as is taught in the parable in
Matthew 18:21-35? Christ Himself gives the answer in
Matthew 18:20: "Where two or three are gathered together in my name"
and where Christ is "in the midst of them." This realm—the kingdom of
heaven—is emphatically not a legendary godly Scotland, or a mythical
Christian America, or a "Christianized" world, or a fantastic Jewish
state in Palestine. It is the church. It was the church in Jesus’ day,
no matter how numerically small, physically powerless, and culturally
insignificant by the standards of man. It is the church today. And it
will be the church until the day that Christ returns.
Once more, by the church is meant the universal body
of Jesus Christ made up of all the elect who believe the gospel and obey
the law as this body manifests herself in the local congregation of
believers and their children.
The Church as
"Who … hath translated us into the kingdom of his
dear Son" (Col.
Identifying the church as the kingdom of God adds
something to our understanding of the church. Knowing herself as the
Messianic kingdom of God, the church will conduct herself accordingly.
Viewing the church of which they are members as Christ’s kingdom,
believers and their children will think of themselves as citizens and
will behave themselves in a way that befits this kingdom.
The church is not only the body of Christ, living
from its head and growing up into its head.
The church is not only the bride of Christ, knowing
the love of her husband, giving herself to Him, and submitting to His
The church is also a kingdom in the world. The church
is the kingdom of God. The church is the Messianic kingdom of God, the
fulfilment of Old Testament Israel, the realization of
Amos 9, and all the other Old Testament prophecies of the coming
glorious, powerful, prosperous, and peaceful reign of God in the
What light this sheds on ecclesiology (the doctrine
of the church), how this affects the church’s own life and work, and how
this forms the life of each member of the church are subjects that need
development among us. This is not to say that nothing has been done by
the Reformed churches to work out the implications of the truth that the
church is the kingdom. Especially in the area of church government, the
Presbyterian and Reformed churches have applied the reality of kingdom
to the life of the church. The church takes form as an organization.
This organization has a government. The church does not simply function
as a living body by the secret workings of the indwelling Spirit. She
does not simply live by the ardent love that a bride feels for her
beloved husband. Christ is king of the church. He rules the church by
His Word. His Word is law for the church. He exercises His kingship
through a body of elders, whom He calls into holy office. These men are
rulers in the church. They administer the Word of the king.
King Jesus also governs the necessary federated
(covenant) life and shared work of the congregations in a denomination.
He rules through the stated assemblies (classis and synod, or presbytery
and general assembly), which are bound to an adopted church order—a kind
of "constitution" of the kingdom (and, therefore, not to be tinkered
with continually, or changed every few decades!)—that regulates the life
and work of the denomination according to Holy Scripture. Christ is king
of the denomination of faithful churches. The Messianic kingdom extends
to the denomination of faithful churches.
Presbyterian and Reformed churches have taken the
kingship of Christ in the matter of church government with utmost
seriousness. They have been convinced that at stake in controversies
over right church government is the kingdom of God. The Reformed
conviction that, as regards church government, the church is the kingdom
of God has produced martyrs. At the time of the Reformation, scores of
thousands of Reformed Christians died at the hands of the Roman Catholic
Church and its political allies, in the Netherlands, France, and other
countries, for refusing to submit to the hierarchical authority of the
pope. In the seventeenth century, many Scottish Presbyterians died
because they would not allow the king of England and his archbishop to
intrude upon the presbyterial government of the Presbyterian church in
The issue for these saints was, as the Scottish
Presbyterians put it, the "crown rights of king Jesus." The issue was
the crown rights of king Jesus in the church. The issue was the
church as the kingdom of God.
The importance that church government has as an
aspect of the kingdom of God in the thinking of Reformed churches is
apparent in Article 28 of the Church Order of the Protestant Reformed
Churches (PRC). Although the article recognizes that the consistory may
claim the protection of the authorities for the possession of their
property and the peace and order of their meetings, it warns that the
consistory "may never suffer the royal government of Christ over His
church to be in the least infringed upon."
This warning is timely. Antichristian, totalitarian
states regard the church as the last and most dangerous threat to their
absolute power. They try to bring the church to heel, and thus absorb
her into the kingdom of Satan, by tempting or terrorizing her to subject
herself to the lordly will of the state rather than to the will of the
Lord Jesus. The day is not far off in the nominally Christian West that
civil government will demand that the church give "equal rights" to
women by decreeing their ordination to special office and that the
church cease her "hate crime" of condemning homosexuality and
disciplining impenitent homosexuals. The penalty, as Article 28 of the
Church Order of the PRC indicates, will be the seizure of the church’s
property and the disruption of the peace and order of the church’s
The issue will be the kingdom of God.
The church is a nation, or kingdom (I
Pet. 2:9). She is a sovereign nation. She permits no meddling in her
government by any other kingdom, or nation. For a consistory or a synod
to allow the authority of some earthly prince to override the authority
of Christ in the congregation or denomination is treason. The German
churches were guilty of this in the 1930s and 1940s when they cravenly
permitted Hitler to rule in the churches. They lowered the banner of the
kingdom of God and ran up the flag of the Third Reich. The churches in
the World Council of Churches similarly capitulated to the Communist
Viewing the Church as Kingdom
But the truth that the church is the kingdom of God
has application to far more than only the government of the church. The
whole doctrine of the church can and must be seen in light of the
kingdom of God. That the church is the kingdom has implications for
every aspect of the life and work of the church. To my mind, this has
not been sufficiently developed among us. We have developed the doctrine
of the church as the body and bride of Christ. We have developed the
truth of the covenant and its relation to the church. But as regards the
kingdom of God, particularly the relation of the kingdom and the church,
we are lacking.
Reformed theologians have proved that the church is
the fulfilment—the New Testament reality—of Old Testament Israel. The
work by O. T. Allis, Prophecy and the Church, comes immediately
to mind. Thus, the theologians have proved that the church is the
kingdom. And Reformed people understand this. They are not dreaming the
"Jewish dream" of a future carnal kingdom of converted Jews in Palestine
(premillennial dispensationalism), or of a future earthly kingdom of
Presbyterians holding and wielding absolute political power in North
America and even over all the world (postmillennial Christian
But Reformed theologians have not thoroughly worked
out, in light of Holy Scripture, what the church looks like as the
millennial kingdom of God. They have not shined the light of the kingdom
upon every aspect of the church’s existence and every detail of her
activity and work. The result is that to some extent the church itself
does not live in the consciousness that it is the kingdom of God—the
glorious, powerful, prosperous, peaceful kingdom of God in Jesus Christ,
the kingdom of
Psalm 72. To some extent, the church itself does not work in the
lively consciousness that its work is the aggressive maintenance and
extension of itself in the world by the kingdom of the Father of Jesus
Christ—the coming of the kingdom of the second petition of the model
prayer. To some extent, the church does not fight its battles in the
consciousness that it is the host of God Almighty, "terrible as an army
with banners" (Song 6:4)—the reality of David’s army with its mighty men.
Our ministers should make such a study of the church
as the kingdom. One way to do this is to preach the Heidelberg Catechism
from the viewpoint of the kingdom of God with special emphasis on the
kingdom-nature of the church.
It may well be that the popularity of the millennial
errors that have been troubling Protestant churches for the past 200
years is due in part to the weakness of the church on the doctrine of
the kingdom. Both forms of millennialism, postmillennialism as well as
premillennialism, are not so much a false teaching of the last things as
they are a false teaching of the Messianic kingdom of God. Often, the
arising of doctrinal error in the church is indicative of the church’s
failure to grasp or do justice to the truth that is at issue.
Whatever may be the cause of the popular millennial
errors, God’s purpose with them as serious doctrinal errors—false
doctrines—is that they cause His church to examine more thoroughly,
develop more fully, and confess more clearly the truth that these errors
subvert, that is, the truth of the kingdom.
Aspects of the Church as Kingdom
Without trying to be exhaustive, I suggest that
conceiving and presenting the church as the kingdom will be fruitful in
teachings that are both grand in themselves and urgently needed by the
Reformed churches today. If the church is the kingdom, Jesus Christ is
the absolute sovereign of the church. The head of the church is king. As
sovereign, He alone establishes, maintains, and perfects the kingdom. As
sovereign, He alone makes and preserves the citizens. As sovereign, He
alone determines the life and behaviour of both the church and the
individual member. In a good, old-fashioned monarchy, the life of the
realm and the life of each citizen are simply a matter of being ruled.
What the realm might like and what the citizen might want are
irrelevant. The will of the king is all. And the king of the church is
eternal God in the flesh. "Where the word of a king is, there is power:
and who may say unto him, What doest thou?" (Ecc.
If the church is the kingdom, there is and must be
discipline. The flagrantly and impenitently rebellious and disobedient
must be excommunicated. There is no place in the kingdom for them. To
let them remain would be to jeopardize the kingdom. But there must also
be order; prescribed, right worship; one faith; a definite way of life
for all the citizens; co-operation among the citizens; regard for the
customs and traditions; and the training of the young to revere the
king, love the kingdom, and live the life of the kingdom.
What a disorderly business is the life of many
churches today. Gross, public sinners are leading citizens. The members
believe and do as they please. Many do not even regularly and diligently
attend the services of worship on the Lord’s Day. And the church
tolerates it! Some kingdom! Churches resemble Israel in the time of the
judges, when everyone did what was right in his own eyes, because there
was no king in Israel.
If the church is the kingdom, the church must be
driven with the urge to expand the territory, to press the claims of the
king still more widely, indeed to raise the banners of the kingdom of
God over all the nations. This is missions and all the witness of the
church, but it is kingdom-missions. This makes a difference. For one
thing, it keeps missions from being a sentimental effort to save souls
for Jesus, which invariably corrupts the message in the interests of
more souls and thus results in no souls at all. A church that knows
itself as the kingdom of God will be motivated to glorify God in
missions. This church will not water down the message of the gospel of
the glory of the grace of God in Jesus Christ, much less concoct a new
message that is more to the liking of the time and culture.
For another thing, kingdom-missions will not overlook
that aspect of the Great Commission that is widely ignored today:
"teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you" (Matt.
28:20). Entrance into the kingdom must be followed by a life in the
kingdom of obeying all of Christ’s commands.
If the church is the kingdom, the church must know
itself as a fighting force, an army that confronts enemies, demolishes
fortresses, and even destroys people. Kingdoms are at war in history. As
much as in the Old Testament, the kingdom of Christ in the time of the
new covenant is commissioned by God to do battle against the hordes of
devils, the apostate churches, and the world of reprobate, ungodly men
and women. "The Lord at thy right hand shall strike through kings in the
day of his wrath. He shall judge among the heathen, he shall fill the
places with the dead bodies; he shall wound the heads over many
How this is deplored and rejected in most of the
churches today! How this is in danger of being lost today even in the
most faithful of churches! Love, tolerance, friendliness, sweetness, and
niceness are the only attributes of the church! The result is that the
kingdom of darkness—"the gates of hell"—is rolling over these
defenceless churches with a spiritual blitzkrieg.
But what if the church is the kingdom of God, really
the New Testament reality of David’s warring kingdom, the kingdom whose
king is the king of kings of
Revelation 19:11ff.? How will this make a difference in the pulpit,
in the decisions of the consistory and the synod, in the lectures and
writing of the professors of theology, and in the witness of the
The Kingdom in the Lives of
"Who … hath translated us into the kingdom of his
dear Son" (Col.
No one should fear identifying the church as the
kingdom because he supposes that this limits the extent of the kingdom
in the world. This is the fear of some. They think that the kingdom
would be shut up in the narrow confines of the instituted church. In
fact, one of the main charges made by postmillennial Christian
Reconstruction against the identification of the church as the kingdom
is that "this equation of the Church with the kingdom of Christ evades
the issue of Christendom: the wider influence of the gospel in history"
(Gary North, Crossed Fingers [Tyler, Texas, 1996], p. 59).
The mistaken notion of "Christendom" aside, this fear
The truth that the church is the kingdom does full
justice to the fullest extension of the kingdom in all the world, among
all nations, and in every sphere of human life. Since the kingdom is the
reign of God in Jesus Christ, the reign of God in Jesus Christ extends
over all the world.
The Extension of the Kingdom in the Gathering of the
For one thing, the church is the servant that God
uses to translate those for whom the kingdom has been eternally prepared
out of the kingdom of Satan into the kingdom of the Son of His love.
This translation is accomplished by the church’s preaching of the
gospel, whether among the children of believers or on the mission field.
In connection with this saving work of God, churches are established at
home and abroad.
Thus the kingdom is extended.
Having called men, women, boys, and girls to the
kingdom, the church continues to instruct and discipline these citizens
in the life of the kingdom (Matt.
The history of the church in the present age is proof
that identification of the church as the kingdom does not result in
restricting the kingdom, but rather in extending it over all the world.
By the preaching, first, of the apostles and, then, of faithful
ministers and missionaries, the kingdom spread from Jerusalem throughout
the world in the form of true churches of Jesus Christ in all nations.
This spread of the kingdom in the form of true
churches in all nations is the discipling of the nations that Christ
Matthew 28:19: "Teach [Greek: ‘disciple’] all the nations." In the
conversion, salvation, and sanctification of the elect in all nations,
regardless that they are and always have been a minority, and in the
gathering of them as a church, the nations become disciples of Christ.
Not only is the church instrumental in the extension
of the kingdom worldwide, it is also the agent by which the kingdom is
maintained. The church defends the kingdom of God. The church defends
the kingdom of God by defending the gospel of the kingdom. The Messianic
kingdom of God is always under attack, as the history of Israel in the
Old Testament and the book of Revelation make plain. Only where a true
church proclaims the gospel of sovereign grace and teaches an
authoritative law of God as the rule of the life of the saints is the
kingdom to be found.
Identification of the church as the kingdom in no way
hinders, but in every way promotes the extension of the kingdom.
The Extension of the Kingdom in the Lives of the
For another thing, by the same royal Word by which
people are naturalized as citizens of the kingdom of God, the church
teaches and disciplines these people to live the life of the kingdom in
every sphere of human life and in every ordinance of creation.
The kingdom of God—the reign of God in Christ—is
extended in the life of every genuine member of the church. And the life
of the member of the church is to be lived in the world. In the world,
he lives the life of the kingdom as a citizen of this kingdom. This is a
life of obedience to Jesus Christ as lord and king. In the life of the
member of the church is, and is shown, the reign of God in Christ by the
This is the teaching of the Heidelberg Catechism
in Lord’s Day 48. In explanation of the second petition of the model
prayer, "Thy kingdom come," the Catechism begins with the life of the
individual citizen of the heavenly kingdom: "Rule us so by Thy Word and
Spirit, that we may submit ourselves more and more to Thee."
The rule of God in the life of the believer begins
with his own very personal, spiritual life and experience. The kingdom
comes more and more in him when he abhors himself as a sinner, trusts
alone in the cross of Christ, loves his king, seeks the glory of God and
the good of the neighbour rather than himself, and makes some progress
in his fight against doubt, envy, bitterness, discontent, drunkenness,
illicit sexual desire or whatever may be his own besetting demon.
That demon, by the way, promotes the kingdom of Satan
in the believer’s life. The two kingdoms clash most violently and with
the highest stakes, not out there in society in the culture wars. That
clash is mere child’s play in comparison with the war of the two
kingdoms in the soul of every Christian.
To the noisy champions of a grand, showy, outward
kingdom that is one day to Christianise the world, this personal
spiritual extension of the kingdom is of little account. But to God,
Scripture, and the Heidelberg Catechism—as to the battling believer—it
is first and basic. The apostle of Christ virtually defines the kingdom
in terms of its experience by the individual church member: "For the
kingdom of God is not meat and drink; but righteousness, and peace, and
joy in the Holy Ghost" (Rom.
14:17). That the kingdom comes in the life of an elect sinner is a
wonder of the almighty, life-giving, gracious power of the Holy Spirit.
The kingdom comes first and importantly in the soul
and experience of the child of God. But then it necessarily advances
into the active life of the Christian in the world in every sphere and
ordinance, with body and soul and with all his gifts.
As a citizen of the kingdom, he is a member with his
family of the church, indeed of the purest manifestation of the church;
is diligent in church attendance; submits to Christ’s authority in the
elders; uses his gifts for the good of the congregation and
denomination; and lives in peace with the other members as much as
As a citizen of the kingdom, the Reformed man marries
in the Lord, loves his wife, honours marriage as a lifelong bond, rears
his children in the truth, and rules his household well.
As a citizen of the kingdom, the Reformed woman
marries in the Lord, submits to her husband with due obedience, honours
marriage as a lifelong bond, is a "keeper at home," brings up her
children in the faith, and cooperates with her husband’s rule.
As citizens of the kingdom, the parents establish
good Christian schools, to carry out the godly instruction of the
children of the kingdom that they themselves cannot give.
As a citizen of the kingdom, the man labours
faithfully in his job, whatever it is, high-powered or menial, as to the
Lord, to provide for his own needs and for those of the kingdom. This
includes that he recognizes and submits to the authority of his
employer. If he is the employer, he treats his workers justly and pays
As a citizen of the kingdom, the believer honours
civil government as God’s servant, submits to the authority of the state
and its functionaries, obeys all laws that do not require him to disobey
God, and pays the taxes that the state decrees. If he is the ruler,
which is perfectly proper, although quite rare, he keeps order in
society, legislates in accordance with the law of God for national life,
punishes those who disturb the common order, and protects those who are
As a citizen of the kingdom, the member of the church
is honest and kind in his dealings with his neighbours, whether
believing or unbelieving, and helpful to the needy as he has
opportunity. As much as possible, he lives in peace with all men.
As a citizen of the kingdom, the Christian freely
uses and enjoys the good creation of God his king, always in service of
the kingdom and to the glory of the king of the kingdom. This creation,
freely used and enjoyed, includes his own natural gifts of music, or
art, or scientific study, or poetry, or gardening, or athletics, and
much more besides.
Thus, in the active life of the member of the church
the kingdom extends into all areas of human life in all the world.
None of the extension is divorced from the church.
All of it proceeds from and is empowered by the church as the kingdom of
This all-comprehensive, all-invading, all-dominating
kingdom-life is also the Reformed "world-and-life-view." It may not be
the kingdom-life that Abraham Kuyper grandiosely sketched in his
Lectures on Calvinism, or the triumphalist "world-and-life-view" of
the Christian Reconstructionists. But it is the humble, down-to-earth,
realistic kingdom-life and "world-and-life-view" of
I Peter 2:11-5:14; the book of Titus;
I Timothy 4:1-8; and the New Testament generally.
This aspect of the kingdom of God, namely, the
extension of the kingdom in the lives of the citizens, is fundamental.
Where is it found today?
Where is it found even as regards those who are
clamouring the loudest for a world-and-life-view"? Where is it found
among those who are constantly criticizing the Protestant Reformed
Churches for their alleged lack of a broad, victorious kingdom-vision?
Fact is, we Protestant Reformed Christians are
sharply critical of many of these "culture-transformers" and
"kingdom-builders" exactly for their woeful shortcomings as regards the
biblical, Reformed Worldview. For all their talk about building and
advancing the kingdom, the sin of many Reformed, Presbyterian, and
evangelical people today is that they do not teach and live the life of
the kingdom of Christ.
Many of them do not even belong to sound Reformed
churches. They retain their membership in churches that do not preach
the pure doctrine of the gospel, churches that corrupt the sacraments,
and churches that neglect the discipline of public, impenitent sinners.
They permit their children to be raised in such churches. All further
kingdom-life is impossible where membership in a true church is lacking.
Many do not attend worship services twice every
Lord’s Day. They use the Lord’s Day for their own work or pleasure,
usually pleasure. Especially in the summer, these enthusiastic
transformers of culture spend their Sundays in their boats, or on the
beach, or at their cottages, or on the road to and from their vacations.
Meanwhile their churches hold services with a handful of old people. It
is common knowledge that a popular preacher of the "Reformed
world-and-life-view" and the "full-orbed kingdom-life" runs out of the
morning service on the Lord’s Day to play golf the rest of the day.
Our day is seeing the murder of Sabbath observance by
those who profess to be Reformed and Presbyterian. And the murder of
Sabbath observance is the end of the kingdom of God among them.
Voltaire, atheist philosopher that he was, could teach these
Sabbath-desecrating advocates of a "Reformed world-and-life-view" the
essential importance of Sabbath observance for the kingdom of God. "If
you want to kill Christianity," that shrewd foe of Christ advised the
French Revolution, "you must abolish Sunday."
Despite the fact that marriage and the family are
basic to the kingdom, many of the churches and theologians crying up a
future, grand, outward, political, carnal kingdom of Christ tolerate, or
even approve, divorce on other grounds than fornication (the only
biblical ground for divorce) and the remarriage of divorced persons,
with all the accompanying disaster for children, grandchildren, the
wider family, the church, and society at large. Christian
Reconstruction, for example, approves remarriage after divorce for
all—innocent parties, guilty parties, parties who are simply
bored—except for someone who might have AIDS (see R. J. Rushdoony,
Institutes of Biblical Law, pp. 401-415 and Ray Sutton, Second
Chance: Biblical Principles of Divorce and Remarriage [Fort Worth,
To refer to no other corruption of true kingdom-life
as prescribed by the Lord in Holy Scripture, in the vital creation
ordinance of labour many of those who are vehement for the transforming
of culture approve the subversion of the ordinance of labour by labour
unionism. Either they themselves are members of a labour union, or they
approve membership in the unions on the part of those with whom they
regularly celebrate the Lord’s Supper.
Every labour union stands before God and men with
blood dripping from its hands. In enforcing their strikes, they have
wounded and killed innumerable men and women who have opposed them,
especially the "scabs." And the strike itself, the heart and soul of the
union, is sheer, obvious rebellion by the workers against the God-given
authority of the employer. By membership in a labour union, one makes
himself responsible for the violence of the "brotherhood" and becomes
party to the rebellion of labour against what Scripture calls the
Against all this conformity to the culture of the
ungodly, we Protestant Reformed churches and people vigorously promote,
insist on, and, by the grace of God, begin to live the kingdom-life and
practice a Reformed Worldview.
Not apart from the church!
The church is the kingdom.
The natural eye cannot see it, for by earthly
reckoning the church is small, powerless, and even shameful.
But to the eye of faith, which sees Christ the king
in the church, the church is great, invincible, and glorious.
"Great is the LORD, and greatly to be praised in the
city of our God, in the mountain of his holiness. Beautiful for
situation, the joy of the whole earth, is mount Zion, on the sides of
the north, the city of the great King. God is known in her palaces for a
refuge ... Walk about Zion, and go round about her: tell the towers
thereof. Mark ye will her bulwarks, consider her palaces; that ye may
tell it to the generation following" (Ps.
And out of the church is our spiritual, our kingdom,
life: "All my springs are in thee" (Ps.