Rev. Gise Van Baren
There is something concerning God's eternal decree of
predestination, and particularly the decree of reprobation, which seems
immediately to arouse the ire of man. Mention election or reprobation,
and man closes his ears. Send to him material on such a subject, and he
will return it with the acid comment, "I don't want such stuff in my
mailbox." Even John Calvin, that noted Reformer and champion of the
truth of predestination, is reported to have called reprobation "that
horrible decree" (though that is not an accurate translation of his
statement). Why is there such opposition to these decrees of God? Is
perhaps the reason for opposition to this truth because it particularly
exalts the Sovereign God alone and teaches that man is but a mere
creature? The truth of predestination puts man in his proper place. Is
this why man so strongly objects?
Is there such a thing as reprobation? Usually
reprobation is denied. But, will you be willing to make a careful study
of scriptural passages on this point? The teaching of Scripture must
stand, for it is the Word of God.
Reprobation is that eternal will, good pleasure, or
purpose of God according to which He determined that some of His moral,
rational creatures would be cast into hell forever on account of their
sins; and that this fact would serve the cause of Christ and redound to
God's glory alone.
Before condemning the idea of reprobation out of
hand, let us consider what the Word of God declares. There are several
pertinent passages which speak on this subject. Possibly the clearest
statements concerning reprobation can be found in
Romans 9. There we read of Jacob and Esau, that before they were
ever born or had done good or evil, God said, "Jacob have I loved, but
Esau have I hated" (v. 13). Of Pharaoh, whose heart God had hardened so
that he would not Israel go from Egypt, we read, "Even for this same
purpose have I raised thee up, that I might show my power in thee, and
that my name might be declared throughout the earth" (v. 17).
Romans 9 mentions also that "whom he will, he hardeneth" (v. 18),
and it speaks of "vessels of wrath fitted unto destruction"
What other conclusion can be drawn from these
passages but that they teach plainly that God reprobates some to hell
because of their sin? God hardens whom He will; He fits some to
destruction. Other passages of Scripture are equally clear. We read, for
I Peter 2:8, "... a rock of offense, even to them which stumble at
the word, being disobedient: whereunto also they were appointed."
Or again, we read in
John 10:26, "But ye believe not, because ye are not of my sheep, as
I said unto you." These and other passages show that God determines the
actions of sinful men (as He did with Pharaoh in the time of Moses), and
that these actions are eternally determined by God.
The confessions of the churches of the Reformed faith
emphatically teach this truth of reprobation. We read in the Canons
of Dordt, the First Head of Doctrine, Article 15: "What peculiarly
tends to illustrate and recommend to us the eternal and unmerited grace
of election, is the express testimony of sacred Scripture, that not all,
but some only are elected, while others are passed by in the eternal
decree; whom God, out of his sovereign, most just, and irreprehensible
and unchangeable good pleasure, hath decreed to leave in the common
misery into which they have wilfully plunged themselves, and not to
bestow upon them saving faith and the grace of conversion. But
permitting them in his just judgment to follow their own ways, at last
for the declaration of his justice, to condemn and punish them forever,
not only on account of their unbelief, but also for all their other
sins. And this is the decree of reprobation which by no means makes God
the author of sin (the very thought of which is blasphemy), but declares
him to be an awful, irreprehensible, and righteous judge and avenger
Does this mean that the reprobate, no matter what
he does, whether good or evil, is damned to hell? God forbid that
such should be the case, or that one should ever teach that. This
question, however, is deliberately deceiving. The reprobate are
incapable of doing any good. Consider first that all men in Adam
are dead in sin (Rom.
5:12). That plainly means that every man born into this world is
wholly incapable of doing any good and is inclined to all evil
Rom. 3). There is not even the remotest possibility that good works,
pleasing to our God, could ever proceed from that dead sinner. Can a
physically dead person eat or drink? Far less could the sinner ever
perform good deeds. God's grace is not given to the reprobate; they are
not in Jesus Christ; and therefore they can do nothing pleasing
Secondly, the reprobate are always damned to eternal
hell in the way of their own sin. It is true that God determined
what their final end would be—and that He did so before they were ever
born. In what other way could one possibly interpret the passages quoted
earlier? But the wicked are definitely cast into the torments of hell
because of their own evil acts. Never can they point their finger at
God, declaring, "God has forced me to do that which was contrary to His
will; the fault therefore lies with God and not with me." The wicked
reprobate consciously and willingly sin, and for that sin they shall
surely be cast into eternal desolation.
One of the many scriptural passages which indicate
this, is found in
Luke 11:49-51, "Therefore also said the wisdom of God, I will send
them prophets and apostles, and some of them they shall slay and
persecute: that the blood of all the prophets, which was shed from the
foundation of the world, may be required of this generation; from the
blood of Abel unto the blood of Zacharias which perished between the
altar and the temple: verily I say unto you, It shall be required of
But, you ask, is God not then unjust? Is it
not terribly unfair on God's part to determine that any should perish?
What kind of God is He? We may not have such charges, friend. Who do we
think that God is? Do we think that God must conform to our puny
reasoning? Since when does the Almighty God owe to any man
eternal life? Why should the Sovereign of heaven and earth be
to bestow His grace upon all? Must God bring every
moral-rational creature into heaven? "Nay, but O man, who art thou that
repliest against God?" (Rom.
9:20). The potter has power over the clay, says Scripture, to make
of the same lump one vessel unto honour, and another unto dishonour (Rom.
9:21). Is God unjust when He does with His own as He sees fit? I
confess that I cannot penetrate into the depths of the wisdom of God and
explain why such an one would be reprobated, and another elected. All I
can say, with Scripture, is that God does all things to His own good
pleasure to the glory of His own Name.
Another question arises. Why, if God determines all
things, should there even be any reprobate wicked? Why would God, from
before the foundations of the world, determine that some should be cast
into hell because of the sins they perform? If God truly directs all
things, could not He indeed have prevented sin, and rather determined
that all men should enjoy the blessings of eternal life? These are
There are several scriptural reasons God reprobates
certain creatures to eternal hell.
In the first place, the decree of reprobation must
somehow serve to glorify the Name of God. God, the Sovereign One,
directs all things that His glory might the more fully be revealed. This
is true for everything without exception. Do not the twenty-four elders
Revelation 4 cry out, "Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive all glory
and honour and power: for thou hast created all things, and for thy
pleasure they are and were created" (v. 11)? But how, you might ask,
can reprobation serve to reveal the glory of God in the best possible
way? Through the decree of reprobation, God reveals His eternal hatred
and wrath against sin and punishment of the workers of iniquity. Apart
from God's decree of reprobation this would never have been so clearly
revealed. This contrast is suggested in
I John 1:5: "This then is the message which we have heard of him,
and declare unto you, that God is light, and in him is no darkness at
all." The same is found in
John 1, especially verse 5, "And the light shineth in darkness; and
the darkness comprehended it not." Do you object? Does not that
Sovereign Potter have power over the clay also to fashion vessels of
dishonour to serve His own pleasure and to reveal His own glory and
Secondly, one can understand the reason for the
existence of reprobate wicked when he begins to see the whole of God's
plan. In Holy Scripture it becomes very evident that the heart or centre
of all the counsel or plan of God is Christ—and in Christ is the church.
God would reveal His glory in the highest possible way by gathering a
particular people in Jesus Christ His only begotten Son. This is the
truth of which we read in
Ephesians 1:4-6: "According as He hath chosen us in him [Christ]
before the foundation of the world ... having predestinated us unto the
adoption of children by Jesus Christ to Himself according to the good
pleasure of his will, to the praise of the glory of his grace ..."
This could be compared, by way of illustration, to
the meat or kernel of a nut. The meat or kernel is the significant part
of the whole of the nut. Yet there is also a shell around the whole. The
shell is not eatable, yet it has a function. When this function has
ceased, that shell is broken and discarded. So is the wonder of god
revealed in the gathering of the church of Jesus Christ. The cause of
Christ, the gathering of the church, is served by all things which take
place. Not without reason do we read in
Romans 8:28, "And we know that all things work together for
good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to his
purpose." The whole of creation, all things which take place within that
creation—these all form part of the shell surrounding the people of God
who are in Christ. That shell has its purpose and place—but when its
purpose is served, it is discarded.
Something similar can be said concerning reprobation.
The reprobate too must serve the purpose of God in the gathering and
defending of the church of Christ. The evil deeds, in which these evil
ones seek to oppose God and destroy His church, can and do work rather
to the benefit of the church. The crucifixion of Christ is the prime
example. Wicked men sought to remove the Christ from this earth. They
made plans to kill Him—and, in fact, they did crucify Him outside of the
walls of Jerusalem. But the result was that the determinate purpose of
God to save His people through the shedding of Christ's blood was
realized. We read in
Acts 4:27-28, "for of a truth against thy holy child Jesus, whom
thou hast anointed, both Herod, and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles,
and the people of Israel, were gathered together for to do whatsoever
thy hand and thy counsel determined before to be done."
We see then that reprobation is not a "horrible"
decree at all. We see too that it is not somehow equal to or on a par
with the wonder of the decree of election. God does not arbitrarily
declare: "I want to cast some people into hell, and I want to bring some
people to heaven." God forbid! But God worked all things (both creation
and also this decree of reprobation) to serve His purpose of bringing
His elect people through sin and grace to eternal glory in heaven. Even
this truth of reprobation must be for my comfort and assurance in this
terribly sinful world.
Can or must this decree of reprobation be preached by
the ministers of the Word? Or is it some sort of skeleton which must be
kept hidden in the Reformed closet? Does not this truth of reprobation
tend to discourage those within the church and turn away those outside
of it? How can the missionary go forth in his mission labours and teach
the heathen this decree of reprobation? If there is such a thing as
reprobation, would it not be far better to be silent about it?
No doubt it is Christ and His cross which are the
centre of all the Word of God. And these truths must be always
emphasized by faithful ministers of the Word. But the true minister of
Christ's Word cannot avoid teaching some truths such as reprobation
which are displeasing to men. God's Word does not ignore this truth—how
then could a preacher of the Word ever do so? One may not try to hide
We must remember, too, that this truth of God's
decree of reprobation is meant to strike terror into the hearts of the
wicked. When this truth is properly preached, the wicked have the sure
testimony of God that He will reward them according to their evil works.
Finally, does this truth not discourage the church?
would not a Christian begin to think, "Maybe, after all, I am a
reprobate?" God forbid. One who is truly concerned with his own
spiritual welfare, who sees and acknowledges sincerely before God the
greatness of his sin—such an one sees in himself not the fruits of
reprobation, but of election. Then the Christian is not frightened by
reprobation as far as his own person is concerned. Rather, this doctrine
too gives him unspeakable comfort and assurance. Despite all that the
wicked seek to do to God's church, the Christian knows that God still
has absolute government and control. The wicked too can only serve His
eternal purpose. And the final end of the wicked, God has determined for
the vindication of His own Name. Should not the church constantly be
assured of this glorious fact in the preaching of the Word?
Oh, the wonder of the greatness of our glorious God!
Unspeakable are His ways, and His judgments past finding out! May He
also grant that we may never be ashamed to maintain this His word even
as He has revealed it to us.