The Historical Use of the Psalms
Basil the Great (c.330-379) bishop of Caesarea, author of a
famous work on the Holy Spirit: "He devised for us these harmonious
melodies of the psalms, that they who are children in age or even those
who are youthful in disposition might to all appearances chant but, in
reality, become trained in soul. For, never has any one of the many
indifferent persons gone away easily holding in mind either an apostolic
or prophetic message, but they do chant the words of the psalms even in
the home, and they spread them around in the market place, and if
perchance someone becomes exceedingly wrathful, when he begins to be
soothed by the psalm, he departs with the wrath of his soul immediately
lulled to sleep by means of the melody."
Synod of Laodicea (343-381), canon LIX: "No psalms composed by
private individuals nor any uncanonical books may be read in the church,
but only the Canonical Books of the Old and New Testaments."
John Chrysostom (c.347-407) bishop of Constantinople, the
golden-mouthed preacher: "The grace of the Holy Ghost hath so ordered
it, that the Psalms of David should be recited and sung night and day.
In the Church’s vigils—in the morning—at funeral solemnities—the first,
the midst, and the last is David. In private houses, where virgins
spin—in the monasteries—in the deserts, where men converse with God—the
first, the midst, and the last is David. In the night, when men sleep,
he wakes them up to sing; and collecting the servants of God into
angelic troops, turns earth into heaven, and of men makes angels,
chanting David’s Psalms."
The Preface to The Bay Psalm Book (1640), the first book to be
printed in New England: "… certainly the singing of David’s psalms was
an acceptable worship of God, not only in his, but in succeeding times,
as in Solomon’s time (II Chron. 5:13) in Jehoshaphat’s time (II Chron.
20:21) in Ezra’s time (Ezra 3:10-11) and the text is evident in
Hezekiah’s time they are commanded to sing praise in the words of David
and Asaph (II Chron. 29:30) … the whole Church is commanded to teach one
another in all the several sorts of David’s psalms, some being called by
himself Mizmorim: psalms, some Tehillim: hymns, some Shirim: spiritual
songs. So that if the singing of David’s psalms be a moral duty and
therefore perpetual; then we under the New Testament are bound to sing
them as well as they under the Old: and … we are expressly commanded to
sing Psalms, Hymns, and Spiritual Songs (Eph. 5:19; Col. 3:16) …"
Westminster Confession of Faith (1640s) 21:5:
"The reading of the Scriptures with godly fear; the sound preaching, and
conscionable hearing of the word, in obedience unto God, with
understanding, faith, and reverence; singing of psalms with grace in the
heart; as also the due administration and worthy receiving of the
sacraments instituted by Christ; are all parts of the ordinary religious
worship of God: besides religious oaths and vows, solemn fastings, and
thanksgivings upon special occasions, which are, in their several times
and seasons, to be used in a holy and religious manner."
The Westminster Directory for Public Worship of God
"Of Singing of Psalms:
It is the duty of
Christians to praise God publickly, by singing of psalms together in the
congregation, and also privately in the family.
In singing of
psalms, the voice is to be tenably and gravely ordered; but the chief
care must be to sing with understanding, and with grace in the heart,
making melody unto the Lord.
That the whole
congregation may join herein, every one that can read is to have a psalm
book; and all others, not disabled by age or otherwise, are to be
exhorted to learn to read. But for the present, where many in the
congregation cannot read, it is convenient that the minister, or some
other fit person appointed by him and the other ruling officers, do read
the psalm, line by line, before the singing thereof."
John Lightfoot (1602-1675) member of the Westminster
Assembly: "The constant and ordinary psalms that [the Jews] sang were
On the first day of the week, the Four-and-twentieth Psalm, The earth is
the Lord’s and the fullness thereof, etc.
On the second day of the week, the Forty-eighth Psalm, Great is the
Lord, and greatly to be praised in the city of God, etc.
On the third day, the Eighty-second Psalm, God standeth in the
congregation of the mighty, and judgeth among the gods, etc.
On the fourth day, the Ninety-fourth Psalm, O Lord God, to whom
vengeance belongeth, etc.
On the fifth day, the Eighty-first Psalm, Sing aloud unto God our
strength, make a joyful noise unto the God of Jacob, etc.
On the sixth day of the week, the Ninety-third Psalm, The Lord reigneth,
He is clothed with majesty, etc.
On the Sabbath-day they sang the Ninety-second Psalm, which bears the
title of A Psalm or song for the Sabbath-day.
These were the
known and constant and fixed psalms that the singers sang, and the music
played to, on the several days of the week …
This saying over of the Hallel is acknowledge by the Jews to be an
institution of the scribes; and the reason of the picking out of these
psalms for that purpose was because of their beginning or ending with
Hallelujah, and partly because they contain, not only so high and
eminent memorials of God’s goodness and deliverance unto Israel … but
also several other things of high and important matter and
consideration; for the Hallel, say they, recordeth five things: the
coming out of Egypt, the dividing of the sea, the giving of the law, the
resurrection of the dead, and the lot of Messias."
John Flavel (1628-1691): "Sir, I hope we
do attend it, and, in some respects, better than some great pretenders
to primitive purity [i.e., the Anabaptists], who have cast off not
only the initiating sign of God's covenant, (this did not Abraham) but
also that most comfortable and ancient ordinance of singing Psalms:
and what other primitive ordinance of God may be cashiered next, who
can tell? ... Certainly you are none of the fittest persons in the
world to clamour so loudly against us, for want of express precedents
for infants baptism, whilst yourself confesses, you want even one
precedent in the New Testament to legitimate your own practice; and in
the mean time are found in the sinful neglect of a sweet and heavenly
gospel-ordinance, viz. the singing of psalms, for which you have both
precept and precedent in the gospel, Col. 3:16, James 5:13, I Cor.
14:26 ... Infant-baptism, with you is not; singing of psalms, that
plain and heavenly gospel ordinance, with you is not; and will you
take away our Benjamin also [i.e., the covenant of God with Abraham
and his children in their generations]?" (Works
[Edinburgh: Banner, 1982], vol. 6, pp. 328, 357, 377).
Wilhelmus à Brakel (1635-1711): "The decision of the Dutch
Synods has been very correct indeed, namely, that none other but the
Psalms of David are to be used in the churches" (The Christian's
Reasonable Service, trans. Bartel Elshout [USA: Soli Deo Gloria,
1995], vol. 4, pp. 34-35).
William Dool Killen (1806-1902) Irish Presbyterian: "Influential
Bishops sometimes introduced them [uninspired hymns] by their own
authority, but the practice was regarded with suspicion and seems to
have been considered irregular. In confirmation of this statement it may
be added that the Antioch Council (267) condemned Paul of Samosata for
‘discontinuing the Psalms formerly used, and for establishing a new and
very exceptionable hymnology;’ and the Council of Laodicea (c.381)
decreed that ‘private or unauthorised Psalms ought not to be used in the
Dr. Philip Schaff, American church historian (1819-1893):
(1) The "Book of Psalms is the oldest Christian Hymn Book; inherited
from the ancient covenant … The Councils of Laodicea (360) and of
Chalcedon (451) prohibited the ecclesiastical use of all uninspired or
(2) "[The church] long adhered almost exclusively to the Psalms of
David, who, as Chrysostom says, was first, middle, and last in the
assemblies of the Christians; and it had, in opposition to heretical
predilections, even a decided aversion to the public use of uninspired
songs. The Council of Laodicea, about 360, prohibited even the
ecclesiastical use of all uninspired or ‘private hymns,’ and the Council
of Chalcedon in 451 confirmed this decree."
Professor William Binnie, Scottish Presbyterian (1823-1886):
(1) "The singing of the Hallel by Christ and the eleven in the
guest-chamber on the night of His betrayal, may be said to mark the
point at which the Psalter passed over form the old dispensation into
the New: for it accompanied the celebration of the new ordinance of the
Lord’s Supper as well as the celebration of the expiring Passover.
Thenceforward, it is assumed that at every gathering of Christians for
mutual edification, some one will ‘have a Psalm’ to give out to be
(2) "After an interval of four centuries, the Spirit of inspiration
spoke again by the evangelists and apostles; but no Psalmist was raised
up in the apostolical Church. The New Testament contains books of
history, of doctrine, and of prophecy; but it contains no book of
Josias A. Chancellor: "...
when the administration of religion was changed [from the
Old to the New Testament], and carnal ordinances vanished
away, we can detect no indication of change in the service
of song. Baptism at once took the place of circumcision, the
Passover was displaced by the Lord’s Supper, the first day
of the week was observed instead of the seventh, sacrifices
gradually ceased, and at length the Temple was destroyed,
but there is no hint of any alteration being needed in the
matter of praise, nor was there the slightest cessation of
its observance. On the contrary, Christ and his Apostles
continued to sing the Psalms, just as they had been sung
before, and the Christian Church was commanded to keep up
the exercise (Lay-preaching and Hymn-Singing Unwarranted
in the Church: In Reply to the Rev. F. J. Porter and Dr.
Marcus Dill [Londonderry, 1860], p. 22).
Rev. Hugh Brown (1859) American Presbyterian: "…scripture
psalmody has been used in every period of the church from the days of
Christ and his Apostles down to the present time. The most learned and
orthodox commentators agree that the hymn sung by our Saviour and his
Apostles at the institution of the Lord’s Supper was the Hallel which
consisted of six inspired Psalms, from the 113th to the 118th inclusive.
And that the book of psalms was used exclusively in the apostolic
period, we have indubitable evidence, but if hymns of human composition
were then used by the church of Christ, we demand any to produce such,
or give proof for it. After the death of the Apostles, and in the 2nd
century, the church departed in several respects form its former purity.
Still we find that scripture psalmody was used. Tertullian positively
asserts, that in the 2nd century, the 133rd Psalm was regularly sung at
the administration of the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper. Respecting the
3rd century, history says little on the subject of psalmody; but as
Irenaeas, Tertullian, and others of the 2nd century, flourished in the
beginning of the 3rd, we have every reason to believe that the practice
of the preceding was the same.
But that the book of Psalms was used by the church in the 4th century,
we have incontrovertible evidence. Jerome of Palestine tells us that the
31st and 45th Psalms were sung at the celebration of the Lord’s Supper;
and Cyril of Jerusalem, who lived in the same age, affirms the same
thing. Jerome likewise says, ‘You could not go into the fields but you
might hear the ploughman at his hallelujahs, and the vine-dresser
chanting the Psalms of David.’ Augustine also testifies to the using the
book of Psalms in worship from the aspersions of its enemies. He says,
as we see in Calvin’s Institutes, book 3, chapter 20. ‘One Hilary took
every opportunity of loading with censures the practice, that hymns from
the book of Psalms, should be sung at the altar. But in obedience to the
command of my brethren I answered him.’ And again, we are told in
Epistle 119, Tome 2, that ‘the Donatists reproached the orthodox,
because they sung with sobriety the divine songs of the prophets, while
they [the Donatists] influenced their minds with the poetic effusions of
human genius.’ Augustine also informs us, that Athanasius of Alexandria
employed the Psalms of David in his church, and the same is affirmed of
Ambrose. In the ‘Apostolic Constitution,’ which appeared in the 4th
century, it is said in Book 2, chapter 57, that ‘the women, the
children, and humblest mechanics, could repeat all the Psalms of David;
they chanted them at home and abroad.’ Again we find Chrysostom, the
orthodox patriarch of Constantinople, in Homily 6, saying; ‘All
Christians employ themselves in David’s Psalms more frequently than in
any other part of the Old or New Testament. And collecting the servants
of God into angelic troops, turns earth into heaven, and of men makes
angels, chanting David’s Psalms.’ Again, in the 5th century we find
Cassian in Book 3, chapter 6 saying, ‘The elders have not changed the
ancient custom of singing psalms. For the hymns which it has been the
custom to sing at the end of the night-vigils, were the same hymns which
they sing at this day, viz.: the 148th, and following Psalms, the 50th,
62nd, and 89th.’ This then is conclusive testimony, and from it we see
three things: (1) That Scripture Psalms were sung in worship in the 5th
century; (2) That these Psalms were also used in the foregoing
centuries, for it is called an ‘ancient custom,’ and (3) The term hymns
in the writings of the Fathers mean the Psalms of David, or Scripture
Psalmody. But farther, Suidas in his Lexicon on the word, chorus, tells
us, that ‘The choirs of churches were, between the years 337 and 404
divided into parts, who, in the time of Flavian of Antioch, sung the
Psalms of David alternately.’ Also, the council of Laodicea in the year
364, decreed, that no unauthorized Psalms should be used in the church;
and in the second at Graga, in Spain, in the beginning of the 7th
century forbid the use of all hymns except those of divine inspiration …
The Waldenses long before the days of the Reformation, in the valleys of
Piedmont, and amid the Alpine hills sung Scripture Psalms …"
Mr. Moll (1869) German: "The Psalter is … the Hymn Book of the
Hebrew Church, originally and primarily designed for use in the Public
Worship of God."
Dr. Grier: "There is no more sheer assumption in all theological
controversy than that the Early Church made and sang their own hymns."
John McNaugher: "It is the oldest hymn-book in existence, having
a connected record through thousands of years down to our own times, and
it is consecrated forever as having been the hymnary of our Saviour and
of the Apostolic Church. In the light of its age-long history, of its
rich poetry, of its unsectarian, catholic character, of its freedom from
error, of its well-proportioned thought, of its theological depth and
spiritual quality, of its wealth of evangelical matter, of its supremacy
in the utterance of devotion and religious experience, and of the
unexampled strains in which it celebrates the glories of God, there is
ample occasion for the plea that the Churches of Christ recognize in the
Psalter their heritage of sacred song, as against a human hymnody with
its necessary imperfections."
Rev. W. E. McCulloch, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: "… ours are the
songs of Solomon’s Temple, of Christ and His Apostles; the songs sung by
martyrs amid the Roman Catacombs, by Waldenses among the fastnesses of
the Alps, by the Huguenots who baptized the soil of France with their
blood, by the Swiss and the Hollanders and the Germans of Reformation
times, by the Covenanters on the hillsides and in the mountain caves of
Scotland, by the Pilgrim Fathers who dared the terrors of the sea and
the savage wilderness; the songs sung by saintly souls through the ages;
the songs of the inspired Psalter, whose whole sentiment may be summed
up in its final exhortation, ‘Let everything that hath breath praise the
Rev. George W. Robinson, D. D., Allegheny, Pennsylvania: "The
Psalms in America are a part of the national heritage, since they were
so closely identified with its early history, wrought so mightily into
the lives of those who made it, and have entered so largely into the
religious experience and practice of the people from the first day to
this. In the hour when the Pilgrim Fathers were about to sail from
Leyden, not in quest of the Golden Fleece, not in search of the fabled
wealth, but to find a haven of liberty and lay the foundations of a
mighty nation, kneeling on the sands of Delft Haven, after prayer by the
minister commending them to the God of the winds and the waves, they all
joined in singing Luther’s favourite Psalm, the Forty-Sixth,
‘God will our strength and refuge prove,
In all distress a present aid;
Though waters roar and troubled be,
We will not fear or be dismayed,’
And then sailed away in the Speedwell. To the strains of a similar Psalm
the Mayflower spread her sails for her perilous journey across the seas.
Arriving at the shores of the New World on the Sabbath, a day holy to
the Lord among these Puritans, they spent the day aboard the ship in the
customary acts of religious worship, a part of which was the singing of
the Psalms. Thus the first sacred song that ever went echoing along that
‘rock-bound coast,’ or broke the stillness of the slumbering forests,
was one of the old Hebrew Psalms with which David, twenty-five centuries
before, was accustomed to waken the echoes amid the hills and valleys of