Joining a True Church
Rev. Angus Stewart
I. The Nature of Church Unity
Jesus Christ is the sole head of His church. Since
the church is His body, it is ruled by Him and animated by His Spirit.
Christ is one, not two or more; therefore the church
is one. Christ is totally consecrated to God; therefore the
church is holy. Christ is a catholic Christ (cf. John
19:19-20); therefore the church is not narrow and regional but
universal. Christ is none other than the One revealed in the inspired
writings of the apostles (who were used to complete the one Word of God
first given in the Old Testament); therefore the church is apostolic.
The church organic possesses all these
attributes perfectly in Christ, according to God's eternal decree and
ultimate purpose. The church institute, which consists of all
true Christian congregations, therefore must seek to preserve and keep
the unity she has in Christ (Eph. 4:3). In other words, the unity of the
church organic demands the unity of institute churches.
The nature of the unity of the institute church must
be explained from a consideration of it in the light of the other three
attributes. The unity of the institute church is a holy unity,
one that binds congregations to the one, true God and separates them
from false churches and unbelievers. It is a unity that is based not on
gender, age, nationality, social status or personality types for it is a
catholic unity. This unity is apostolic for it is a unity
in apostolic doctrine.
Therefore the holiness, the catholicity and the
apostolicity of the unity of the institute church are spiritual.
Separation from the wicked world and consecration to God (holiness)
can only be spiritual. Only spiritual criteria for membership—not the
standards of the world (II Cor. 5:16)—can insure a catholic
church. Apostolic doctrine, consisting of the truth of Jesus
Christ, is spiritual.
The nature of the unity in the institute church can
also be explained in the light of the biblical imagery of the "body"
that is applied both to the church organic (e.g., Eph. 1:23) and the
church institute (e.g., I Cor. 12:27). The Holy Spirit is the life of
Christ's body. Therefore the unity of the institute church is spiritual.
Having determined, from a consideration both of the
other three attributes of the church and of the scriptural presentation
of the church as a "body," that the unity of particular, institute
congregations is spiritual, we are now ready to consider how God works
unity in true churches.
II. How God Works Church Unity
Since each true congregation is a manifestation of
Christ's body, Christ works unity. The congregation is Christ's
spiritual body so He works unity by the Holy Spirit. Moreover,
Christ works unity by His Spirit through the offices He has
ordained in the church.
The spiritual unity that Christ works is the unity of
faith that receives as truth "all that God has revealed to us in his
Word" (Heidelberg Catechism, A. 21). Through the office of
pastor, by sound preaching, the body is edified "till we all come in
the unity of the faith" (Eph. 4:11-13). Unity is preserved and fostered
by Christ's work through the office of elder
in the oversight of the preaching and the sacraments, the maintenance of
order in the church and the exercise of Christian discipline. Christ's
work through the office of deacon expresses the unity of the
church by the sharing of the church's material offerings in love.
Ephesians 4:1-16, which is a detailed treatment of
church unity, has a lot to say about Christ's work through the office of
believer (vv. 1-3, 7, 12-16). In the way of "speaking the truth
in love," the members promote the church's growth into Christ the head
(v. 15) so that the body builds itself up in love (v. 16). The risen
Christ gives teachers to the church (vv. 8-11) for equipping the saints
in order that the members are able to edify one another (vv. 12-16).
Since unity is spiritual and since it is promoted
through office-bearers (both the special offices and the office of
believer), unity is promoted by "speaking the truth in love" (v. 15).
Faithful denominations, congregations and believers serve Christian
unity in the world by witnessing to the truth of Christ graciously and
uncompromisingly. By growing in their understanding of, and obedience
to, the Word of God, churches and individuals experience a greater unity
with Christ and His body.
III. Apostasy in the Churches
Sadly, our day is one of widespread departure from
God’s revealed truth in Christ. Prevalent sins against the Lord Jesus
and the unity of His church include the following:
Many office-bearers (ministers, elders and deacons)
swear in the name of Almighty God to maintain the church’s Reformed
confession (as a faithful statement and summary of the Bible’s
teachings), while they are ignorant of its doctrines, for they have
not read the confession or even own a copy. Yet the Westminster
Confession rightly declares, "Whosoever taketh an oath ought duly
to consider the weightiness of so solemn an act, and therein to avouch
nothing but what he is firmly persuaded is the truth" (22:3). Others
know what their creed contains but vow with their fingers crossed, so
to speak. However, "An oath is to be taken in the plain and common
sense of the words, without equivocation or mental reservation" (Westminster
Confession 22:4). These evils prevail in countless churches. The
third commandment warns, "the Lord will not hold him guiltless that
taketh his name in vain" (Ex. 20:7).
Higher criticism in the theological
seminaries and Bible colleges attacks the absolute authority and
inerrancy of the Bible (Isa. 8:20; John 10:35; II Tim. 3:16-17), "the
scripture of truth" (Dan. 10:21; cf. Covenant Reformed News
Scripture). Since faith receives "for truth all that God has
revealed to us in his Word" (Heidelberg Catechism, A. 21),
higher criticism further corrupts unbelieving seminarians and weakens
any Christian students who train at such institutions. This, in turn,
adversely affects the congregations and members who later hear such
ministers. Moreover, theological seminaries and Bible colleges that
teach a heretical doctrine of Scripture invariably promote other false
doctrines, again to the detriment of those training for the ministry
and those who will sit under their instruction.
The "another spirit" of Charismaticism (II
Cor. 11:4), with its absurd tongue speaking, false revelations,
prophecies, interpretations, "words of knowledge," etc., supplements,
and hence detracts from and denigrates, the written and sufficient
Word of God (Eph. 2:20; II Peter 1:16-21; Rev. 22:18-19; cf.
Biblical creation in six days is rejected by
many for the foolishness of the big bang, uniformitarian geology and
evolutionism, and so various compromise theories are accepted, such as
the gap theory, theistic evolutionism, progressive creationism and the
framework hypothesis (Gen. 1; Ex. 20:11; Heb. 11:3; cf.
Contrary to Jehovah's sovereign grace faithfully
presented in the Canons
of Dordt, including its "Rejection of Errors," rampant
free-will Arminianism robs the Triune God of His glory. God's
unconditional reprobation, Christ's particular and effectual
redemption and the Spirit's irresistible grace are denied by ministers
telling everyone that Christ died for them (John 10:15, 26; Eph. 5:25;
Canons II:8-9; Westminster Confession
3:6; 8) and that God loves them (Ps. 5:5-6; 11:5; Rom. 9:13; Canons
I:10) and wants to save them (Matt. 11:25-27; Rom. 9:17-18; 11:7-10;
I:15; Westminster Confession
3:3-4, 7; cf.
Especially amongst many fundamentalist and
evangelical churches, lay preaching is not only tolerated but
endorsed, contrary to Scripture's teaching on church office (e.g.,
Eph. 4:11; I Tim. 3; 4:12-16; 5:17), the express declaration of
Westminster Larger Catechism, A. 158 ("The word of God is to be
preached only by such as are sufficiently gifted, and also duly
approved and called to that office") and the testimony of Reformed
theologians (cf. "Against
Sadly, women office-bearers (ministers,
elders and deacons) have been installed in many denominations and
congregations or sent to preach in foreign lands as women
missionaries. The Bible tells us that we can be absolutely certain
that these women are not called by Jesus Christ and that He does not
speak or govern through them (I Cor. 14:34; I Tim. 2:12; cf.
Church Office & Feminism Resources). To professing people of God
who have "women rule over them," Jehovah declares, "they which lead
thee cause thee to err, and destroy the way of thy paths" (Isa. 3:12).
"The Lord," the next verse continues, "standeth to judge the people"
The sacraments are profaned by allowing
those who do not make a credible profession of faith to come to the
Lord's table and/or to have their children baptized. Also many
churches refuse to require the baptism of the children of their
members and some of them substitute for this an "infant dedication
ceremony." All of this is contrary to the Word of God summed in the
Reformed confessions (Belgic Confession 33-35; Heidelberg
Catechism, Lord's Days 25-31; Westminster Confession
In many churches, the Lord's Day worship
services are corrupted by shallow and/or frivolous, non-expository
preaching, often consisting largely of social commentary, political
activism, man-centred Arminianism or "wee stories;" children's church;
testimonies; singing uninspired, Arminian hymns and choruses; bands,
choirs, special numbers, liturgical dance and plays; worldly
Charismatic worship, "healing services," etc. This is "will worship"
(Col. 2:23) and is contrary to the second commandment (Ex. 20:4-6),
which forbids us to "worship [the Lord] in any other way than he has
commanded in his Word" (Heidelberg Catechism, A. 96), for "the
acceptable way of worshipping the true God is instituted by himself,
and so limited by his own revealed will, that he may not be worshipped
according to the imaginations of men, or the suggestions of Satan,
under any visible representation, or any other way not prescribed in
the holy Scripture" (Westminster Confession 21:1; cf. "Will
Worship," an audio sermon by Rev. Stewart).
As the fornicating world influences and infiltrates
many churches, they defile the life-long, unbreakable bond of
(Gen. 2:24; Matt. 19:5-6; I Cor. 7:39), the earthly symbol of the
union of Christ and His church (Eph. 5:22-33), by allowing remarriage
while one’s spouse is living. God's Word denounces these relationships
as "adulterous" (Matt. 5:32; Mark 10:11-12; Luke 16:18; Rom. 7:2-3;
Resources)! Moreover, under pressure from the homosexual lobby and
the politically-correct establishment, congregations and denominations
are even admitting impenitent sodomites and lesbians, first, to church
membership and, increasingly, to special offices in the church. Yet
the holy God denounces homosexuality as an "abomination" (Lev. 18:22;
20:13), involving "vile affections" and "unnatural" "lusts" (Rom.
1:26-27). "Be not deceived"—no matter what the world or the false
churches say—"neither fornicators ... nor adulterers, nor effeminate,
nor abusers of themselves with mankind ... shall inherit the kingdom
of God" (I Cor. 6:9-10).
Faithful church discipline has been lost in
many congregations and denominations such that merely nominal
Christians, heretics, Masons, etc., and those who live worldly lives
are tolerated as members and (eventually) leaven the whole body (Gal.
5:9; I Cor. 5:6). Thus "conservative" ministers and elders sit with
liberals, Arminians, theistic evolutionists, women office-bearers,
etc., at consistories or sessions, classes or presbyteries and synods
or general assemblies. When those with beliefs and/or lifestyles that
contradict God's Word are not effectively disciplined and they are
allowed to come to and/or administer the Lord's Supper, "the covenant
of God [is] profaned and his wrath kindled against the whole
congregation" (Heidelberg Catechism, A. 82; cf. Ron Cammenga, "Zeal
for God's House: The Motivation for Christian Discipline").
False ecumenism is widespread, not only
between "conservatives" and liberals within a departing denomination
but also between denominations, whereby churches with orthodox
Reformed creeds fellowship and worship with Arminians, Roman
Catholics, Charismatics, etc. (Ps. 16:4; II Cor. 6:14-18).
Increasingly, liberal denominations are blatantly breaking the first
commandment (Ex. 20:3), by syncretistic announcements regarding, and
activities with, followers of other religions (e.g., Judaism, Islam,
Hinduism, etc.), holding that they will be saved in their (pagan)
religions (John 4:22; 14:6; Acts 4:12). Holy Scripture asks a
rhetorical question and issues the divine judgment: "Shouldest
thou help the ungodly, and love them that hate the Lord? therefore is
wrath upon thee from before the Lord" (II Chron. 19:2).
Sadly, many church members praise this state of
affairs as "progress." "The church," they say, "must be 'relevant' in
the twenty-first century," by which they mean that the church must
reject God’s truth for the ungodly spirit of the age lest it suffer
reproach for the Word of Christ. As Jeremiah proclaimed, "A wonderful
and horrible thing is committed in the land; the prophets prophecy
falsely … and my people love to have it so" (Jer. 5:30-31). God warns,
"Shall I not visit for these things? saith the Lord: shall not my soul
be avenged on such a nation as this?" (v. 29).
Others do not like the present situation in their
congregation and/or denomination, but do not care enough to protest or
depart to join a faithful church. Sadly, they have been lulled to sleep
by faithless shepherds saying, "Peace, peace; when there is no peace"
John Owen writes of the necessity of a church's
unity in the truth: "An agreement without truth is no peace, but a
covenant with death, a league with hell, a conspiracy against the
kingdom of Christ, a stout rebellion against the God of heaven" (Works,
vol. 10, p. 6). He continues, "All conformity to anything else [but the
truth] is but the agreement of Herod and Pilate to destroy Christ and
his kingdom. Neither is it this or that particular truth, but the
whole counsel of God revealed unto us, without adding or detracting,
whose embracement is required to make our peace firm and stable. No
halting betwixt Jehovah and Baal, Christ and Antichrist; as good be all
Philistine, and worshippers of Dagon, as to speak part the language of
Ashdod and part the language of the Jews" (p. 6; italics mine).
Next, Owen specifically warns against Arminians with
their free-willism: "Neither let any deceive your wisdoms, by affirming
that they are differences of an inferior nature that are at this day
agitated between the Arminians and the orthodox divines of the reformed
church ... One church cannot wrap in her communion Austin [i.e.,
Augustine] and Pelagius, Calvin and Arminius" (p. 7). Those who hold to
the truth of God's sovereign, particular grace in Christ must not seek a
carnal peace with Arminians: "The sacred bond of peace compasseth only
the unity of that Spirit which leadeth into all truth. We must not offer
the right hand of fellowship, but rather proclaim ...
'a holy war,' to such enemies of God’s providence, Christ’s merit, and
the powerful operation of the Holy Spirit" (p. 7).
II Timothy 2:16-18 commands all Christians to shun
profane babblings and false teachers, like Hymenaeus and Philetus
(evidently two excommunicated heretics), for false doctrine will spread
like cancer if not steadfastly rejected. Repeatedly, the apostle Paul
warned, "A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump" (I Cor. 5:6; Gal.
5:9). We see this happening in our land and in many places around the
world before our very eyes. The Scriptures identify apostasy as one of
the signs of Christ's return (Matt. 24:11-12; II Thess. 2:1-4).
R. L. Dabney's analysis applies to the development of
error in departing and apostate churches of our day:
False principles, like the leaven in the meal,
always tend to work out their logical consequences, and to lead their
votaries to all their results. These may be very unexpected; they may
be very unpopular; they may be bitterly repudiated, even by those who
are unconsciously tending towards them. But in due time they come, and
are at last boldly avowed. Unless the seminal errors are purged out,
this must be so; because the human mind must reason connectedly from
its postulates (Discussions: Evangelical and Theological, vol.
2, p. 444).
IV. The Marks of the True Church
Belgic Confession 29, summarizing scriptural
teaching, declares that the marks of the true church are faithful
biblical preaching, administration of the sacraments and exercise of
We believe that we ought diligently and
circumspectly discern from the Word of God which is the true church,
since all sects which are in the world assume to themselves the name
of the church. But we speak not here of hypocrites, who are mixed in
the church with the good, yet are not of the church, though externally
in it; but we say that the body and communion of the true church must
be distinguished from all sects who call themselves the church. The
marks by which the true church is known are these: if pure doctrine is
preached therein; if she maintains the pure administration of the
sacraments as instituted by Christ; if church discipline is exercised
in punishing of sin; in short, if all things are managed according to
the pure Word of God, all things contrary thereto rejected, and Jesus
Christ acknowledged as the only Head of the church. Hereby the true
church may certainly be known, from which no man has a right to
Note that the Belgic Confession (1561) states
that "the true church may certainly be known." Thus the marks of
the church are clearly identifiable, as indeed they must be in order to
be marks. This is also the case because the marks of the church
are the manifestation of Christ. Christ speaks in the true
preaching of the gospel; Christ is spiritually present in sacraments
that are properly administered; Christ opens and shuts the kingdom of
God through discipline that enforces the preached Word and maintains the
purity of the sacraments. Moreover, Christ's presence is powerful and
unmistakable. When judged in the light of the Word, it is not
doubtful where Christ is.
"How much of Christ do you want?" This is the
question that the believer must face when he considers joining a church
or remaining in a church when there are several, more or less pure
churches already in existence in his area. The three marks are the
criteria for recognizing a faithful church, and not wealth, size,
"friendliness," antiquity, ecclesiastical lineage, etc. (cf. H. C.
Marks of the True Church;"
Steven Key, "Church
Membership in an Evil Age").
Since the grace of Christ that effects spiritual
unity comes through faithful preaching, proper administration of the
sacraments and godly exercise of Christian discipline, we can say,
a church is committed to biblical unity, the more it will be committed
to the three marks.
a church is committed to the three marks, the more it will be
committed to biblical unity.
The second commandment also provides another
perspective on this crucial issue. God promises that His judgment runs
in the generations of those who corrupt His worship: "for I the Lord thy
God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the
children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me" (Ex.
20:5). Notice the reference to God’s fierce jealousy! On the
other hand, His covenant mercy is promised to believers and their seed
in the way of maintaining true worship: "shewing mercy unto thousands of
them that love me, and keep my commandments" (Ex. 20:6). Clearly,
membership in a faithful Reformed church is a vital matter for us and
for our children.
V. Joining the True or Purest Church
When Belgic Confession 29 speaks of the marks
of the true church (especially over against Roman Catholicism), we must
understand that the true church, which we must join, is the Reformed
church and not the Lutheran or Anabaptist assemblies, which also existed
at that time. Belgic Confession 28 issues a call to join that
church which is most in conformity with the Word of God: "it is the duty
of all believers, according to the word of God, to separate themselves
from all those who do not belong to the church, and to join themselves
to this congregation, wheresoever God hath established it, even though
the magistrates and edicts of princes were against it, yea, though they
should suffer death or any other corporal punishment. Therefore all
those, who separate themselves from the same, or do not join themselves
to it, act contrary to the ordinance of God."
The Confession of Bohemia (1573) in chapter 8
refers to these "signs" of the "least defiled or most pure" churches:
"wheresoever Christ is taught in holy assemblies, the doctrine of the
holy gospel is purely and fully preached, the sacraments are
administered according to Christ's institution, commandment, meaning and
will, and the faithful people of Christ doth receive and use them." The
same chapter of this Czech creed goes on to state, "Every Christian is
also bound with diligent care to seek after this, and such a true part
of the holy church, and, after he hath found it, to join and maintain
holy communion and fellowship therewith; as the other part of the church
in our Christian creed doth declare, where we profess that 'we believe
the communion of saints.'"
Heinrich Heppe presents the position of the historic
Reformed churches: "it is God's will that we should connect
ourselves as living members with the church fellowship which we
recognize as the true or the purest church" (Reformed Dogmatics,
p. 671; italics mine). In proof, Heppe quotes from Caspar Olevianus
(1536-1587) and Peter Van Mastricht (1630-1706) (pp. 671-672).
Abraham Kuyper commends parents who baptized their
children "in the specific church which they thought the best and
purest revelation of the body of the Lord" (The
Implications of Public Confession, p. 65; italics mine).
Similarly, R. L. Dabney speaks of his denomination, the Presbyterian
Church in the Confederate States, as "the purest of creed and
membership on earth" (Discussions: Evangelical and Theological,
vol. 2, p. 441; italics mine). "It is proper," states G. I. Williamson,
"to leave a true church that is much less pure to join a true church
that is much more pure, provided the motive is the glory of God, the
welfare of one's spiritual concerns (and that of his children), and a
testimony against error" (The Westminster Confession of Faith For
Study Classes, p. 192).
Herman Hoeksema taught that believers ought to join
that church which most clearly manifests the three marks, where the
preaching, sacraments and church discipline are faithful to God's Word.
He added that those who leave a faithful church for a less faithful
church to that extent leave Christ, for Christ's spiritual presence in a
church is marked by faithfulness in its preaching, sacraments and
discipline. Hoeksema writes,
... it is
my conviction that everyone is conscience-bound to join himself to the
purest manifestation of the church of God ...
Is it a
great sin to unite oneself with a church other than that which is,
according to one's conviction, the purest manifestation of the true
It is; for,
by doing so one knowingly cooperates with those forces that always
tend to the development of the false church. A church need not be
wholly false and corrupt to justify separation from its fellowship.
Every church is false in the measure that it departs from the Word of
God, corrupts the sacraments, and becomes lax or perverse in the
exercise of Christian discipline (Ready
to Give an Answer, pp. 37-38).
Moreover, if one considers remaining in, or joining,
a "good" congregation in a (departing) denomination, he has already
admitted that that denomination does not properly know and enjoy the
unity of the church, because it is not united in the faith, since it
has, for example, liberal and more "conservative" wings. Think of the
biblical truth of corporate responsibility (Josh. 7; cf. Herman Hanko, "Achan's
Sin and Punishment"). Remember too that to whom much is given much
will be required (Luke 12:48)!
As G. I. Williamson observes, "There are those who
have remained in false churches on the grounds that they are in a
'conservative' congregation or presbytery, while admitting that the
denomination as a whole is apostate. This violates the biblical doctrine
of the unity of the churches and the scriptural concept of corporate
responsibility (I Cor. 11:14-27)" (The Westminster Confession of
Faith For Study Classes, p. 191).
VI. Answers to Some Objections
1. Is this not donatistic?
The call to the believer to join himself to that
church which most purely maintains God's truth in its preaching,
sacraments and discipline is not donatistic. This is Reformed!
This is the creedal requirement of the Reformed confessions (Belgic
28-29; Confession of Bohemia 8; Westminster Confession
25:4-5), this is the historic position of the Reformed tradition (cf.
Heppe) and this is the faithful teaching of Reformed theologians (e.g.,
Olevianus, Van Mastricht, Dabney, Kuyper, Hoeksema and Williamson).
The Donatists did not charge the early Catholic
church of their day with doctrinal
error. In doctrine, the Donatists and the Catholics were agreed. The
Donatists accused the Catholic church of disciplinary sins, especially
in permitting the restoration of those who confessed their iniquity and
weakness in handing over manuscripts of the Bible to the civil
authorities during the Diocletian persecution of the early fourth
century. Thus the Donatists claimed that the Catholic church had
departed from the holiness of the church and not from Christian
doctrine, the apostolicity of the church. Christians today (like
the sixteenth-century Reformers) must be most concerned with
2. Does not the example of the Old Testament saints
in the Northern Kingdom favour remaining in a "broad" church?
It is true that believers remained in the Northern
Kingdom after the wicked departure of the ten tribes under Jeroboam, who
stationed idolatrous golden calves in Dan and Bethel, but this did not
make the godly into idolaters. Two points need to be made here. First,
the Word of God commanded all adult males among God's people to go to
the three great feasts and to offer sacrifices and thank offerings in
the place that God appointed (Ex. 23:14-17; Deut. 12:5-7, 11), namely
Jerusalem (Ps. 48:1-3; 76:1-2). Doubtless, the saints in the Northern
Kingdom, such as Naboth (I Kings 21) and Hosea, obeyed this command.
Second, the first and second commandments forcefully forbid idolatry. As
John Calvin writes, "Let anyone show me one prophet or any godly man who
once worshipped or sacrificed in Bethel" (Institutes 4.9.9). Thus
the believing remnant in the Northern Kingdom could remain good members
of the Jewish church by detesting the idolatry of Dan and Bethel and by
making holy pilgrimage to the temple in Jerusalem.
Remember that in the Old Testament there was no
provision for reformation in the way of seceding from a corrupt body.
For those days, God ordained one external church organization in
Palestine for His people. The church had not yet received the office of
believer, something necessary for the formation of individual churches
with their own office-bearers. The Spirit, as the Spirit of truth who
would lead the church into all truth (John 15:26), had not yet come
(7:39). Thus heresy, which operates in opposition to the Spirit of
truth, was not yet an ecclesiastical phenomenon. Therefore, this Old
Testament example does not speak in favour of remaining in or joining a
"broad" church which tolerates heresy. Christ warns us of the "broad"
way, for it leads to "destruction" (Matt. 7:13). The calling of New
Testament saints is summarised in the Reformed confessions: join a
church which faithfully manifests the three marks of the church (Belgic
Confession of Bohemia 8; Westminster Confession 25:4-5)!
3. Christ attended Jewish assembles, so why can we
not remain in departing churches?
The answer to this objection is similar to the
previous response. Christ, as One born under the law (Gal. 4:4), was
dedicated in the temple and He attended the feasts. He and every other
believer at that time, including His disciples, were kept from pollution
from the departing Jewish assemblies because they were obeying the
Word of God which required attendance upon the Old Testament
Ecclesiastical separation came in
the Jewish synagogues after Christ's ascension and Pentecost,
when Jewish synagogues rejected the gospel and fell away from the faith.
it was obedience to the Word of God to separate from these synagogues to
form true Christian congregations (e.g., Acts 18:4-6; cf. 7-11).
Remember Amos' penetrating question: "Can two walk together, except they
be agreed?" (Amos 3:3).